Types of Windows in Civil Engineering and Their Advantages and Disadvantages

As you know, one of the first things to do when preparing a building is to choose the number and location of windows in the building, and from the past to the present, there has been a need for a place to use natural daylight, ventilation and air entry and exit.

In this article, you will get acquainted with the types of windows and their advantages and disadvantages:

Window is one of the most important features of a house. On the other hand, the presence of windows in a building has problems along with its advantages, such as the entry of noise from the surrounding streets or the arrival of cold weather on cold days of the year; But all these disadvantages will disappear if you have a suitable choice for the window of your residential or non-residential building; Therefore, according to this introduction, the purpose of preparing this article is to acquaint you with the types of windows and the advantages and disadvantages of each. So join Persian Sazeh to have a complete overview of this important member in the building.

Window components

As you probably know, a window is not a one-component element that is made of only one piece, but also includes different parts with different materials. In fact, to produce what you see, various pieces of profiles (frames), glass, seams, fittings, and… are stacked on top of each other to deliver the final window to you as desired; Therefore, to begin with, it is better to introduce different types of windows into different categories, categorizing and serving you.

1. Window frame

All window components have a great impact on the beauty of the interior and exterior of the building; But in the meantime, one of the most important components of a building is its window frame, which plays an important role in the interior and exterior of the building. Architects design windows with the view that they are part of the building facade, so beauty is important along with efficiency. In general, when people talk about different types of windows, they actually mean the same material as the frame. Frames are also available in the market in wood, iron, aluminum, steel, PVC and UP.

2. Window glass

Window glass is responsible for transmitting light and is produced in single-wall, double-wall and smart types. It is interesting to know that double glazing is one of the most common types of glass today due to its wide range of applications and benefits. In general, the choice of glass type is based on the type of building and other features of the building, and in this regard, among the many options, we should look for glass that has maximum efficiency and is effective in maintaining the health of the home environment and saving energy and costs.

3. Fittings

The presence of fittings is mostly related to the way the window is opened and closed, which is usually available in the market in various types of sliding, double-sided, pickaxe, axial, and other models necessary for making the window.

Well, as you have read so far, the main components of the window are the three above, each of which is described in detail below. Of course, keep in mind that other minor parts, such as rubber seals, are also used in the window, but do not have a significant effect on the model and type of window.

Functional features of the window

In general, depending on the architectural design and the area in which the building is located, the number, height and type of windows of the building can vary. For example, in hot and humid climates, it is better to reduce the air temperature before entering the interior of the building with measures such as shading, so this type of building needs windows that fit the place of construction. It should be noted that natural ventilation is very important, especially in humid climates. Apart from this example and in general, the functional parameters of the window in the exterior wall of the building include various items, including the following:

  • Window heat transfer coefficient

This parameter means that the ability to transfer heat either from the outside environment to the inside of the building or from inside the building to the outside is what it is. Naturally, this coefficient is affected by the material and thickness of the glass, the material of the profile (frame) of the window, the fittings and the type of sealing of the window profile, or the fact that the glass has two or three walls.

  • Window solar indicator

The solar index of a building window is a coefficient based on which the amount of solar energy utilization of the building is determined.

  • Natural air conditioning through the window

Providing natural ventilation in buildings provides better thermal comfort and reduces energy consumption of mechanical systems. Providing fresh air inside the building through windows allows natural ventilation to be provided to the residents of the house when necessary. On the other hand, the presence of joints around different parts of the window can cause the infiltration and exchange of air inside and outside, which if not controlled may increase the need for energy to provide cooling and internal heating of the building.

Types of windows in terms of profiles or frames

In general, and as mentioned, the selection of a suitable profile in the window is determined by the needs of the building and the environment in which it is located, and its types include the following, which we explain in detail each.

  1. Wooden windows
  2. Metal windows (iron and aluminum)
  3. Composite windows (fiberglass, PVC and UPVC )

1. Windows with wooden profiles

Wood, as the first raw material used by humans to make doors and windows, has always maintained its position in this industry due to its unique beauty and originality. Since the production of the first windows until now, the technology of wood processing and application has always been growing. The important thing to remember about using these windows is to discuss how to maintain them properly. Because such windows are exposed to the sun and rain and therefore need special maintenance; So if you want to use these windows, choose quality examples of them.

In general, the advantages of using wooden profiles along with its beauty and originality include:

  • Beauty and originality in appearance
  • No need to paint and spend money on it
  • Sound and heat insulation with the ability to prevent energy loss (with double-glazed or multi-glazed windows)
  • Easy to install and replace

2. Metal windows

Among the types of metals available, aluminum, steel and iron are popular elements for making profiles and for the construction of windows in the construction industry .

  • Aluminum windows

Aluminum windows have a longer life than wood and are also lighter and thinner. It is also easier to transport and install. Although the glass of these windows can be made double-glazed, because the frame of this type of window is not insulated and therefore wastes heat and allows cold to enter the interior and sweats, they do not have the full properties of double-glazed windows. Aluminum is a metal and is vulnerable to corrosion and rust. Aluminum dents and scratches are not repairable and must be completely replaced. Also, the corners of aluminum doors and windows are mechanically connected to each other, which makes it vulnerable to deformation.

  • Steel windows

Undoubtedly, steel windows are an example of the most durable types of windows and have a high level of safety. Steel windows are an example of the most widely used types of windows in construction. Today, various types of galvanized steel windows are used, and their strength is as high as the steel windows used in the past. These windows are available in different designs and it is possible to choose the appropriate examples based on the type of house design.

  • Iron windows

Iron windows can also be made as double glazing. Their advantages are more reasonable price, repairability (for example, in case of broken hinges) and good paintability; But it has the same insulation problems as aluminum windows. In addition, its sealing is usually not done properly and when it rains, it causes water to penetrate from around into the window. In addition to all these cases, rust over time is another problem of this type of window.

3. Composite windows

Compared to other building materials, composites that are the product of chemical processes will be new choices. The construction of window frames has not benefited from the advancement of technology in this field. Here we will give an example of these chemical composite materials. Today, these wood-clad composites are also available in the market .

  • Fiberglass windows

Polymer composites or fiberglass is one of the types of materials that are also used to make windows. Fiberglass is a composite of glass fibers with polymeric materials that uses glass wool as a reinforcing material and polymeric materials as a base material. The most important features and fiberglass windows are :

  • Very light weight
  • No need for metal reinforcement due to high strength and resistance
  • Excellent sound insulation with long life and high resistance
  • Resistant to corrosion and UV rays of the sun
  • Excellent thermal insulation and fire resistance
  • High safety factor against theft
  • Can be produced in various and beautiful colors
  • Window and description

UPS is a new example of a material used in the construction of windows. This material is an example of a material that is also known as nature-friendly. UP windows are good insulators against heat and cold, so using them can also help you reduce your energy costs. Other advantages of such windows include fire resistance. So using them in some way to create safety can also help you. It should be noted that the UP window is also a good insulation against sound. If you are looking to buy quality and affordable windows, we suggest using UPW windows, which we will talk about the advantages of this new generation of composite profiles.

Advantages of PC windows

In the window making industry, these polymers are used to make window frames, which include the following features of UPVC windows .

  • They are easy to wash
  • Energy saving (UP profiles prevent 30% of energy wasted inside the building through windows).
  • Variety of colors and no need for painting
  • Sound insulation (with double-glazed or multi-glazed windows)
  • Temperature and electricity insulation
  • It is anti-ignition and non-flammable.

General Characteristics of Window Glass

  • Strength and hardness

In general, the strength and hardness of glass depends on its impact resistance. In general, it can be said that glass is a fragile material, but by adding different materials with different properties, its resistance to breakage can be increased .

  • Transparency

One of the important features that you should pay attention to when choosing glass is its transparency. The transparency of the glass affects the visibility of the exterior. The transparency of the glass can be only on one side or on both sides. If the degree of transparency is only on one side, the glass will become a mirror .

  • Low heat transfer property

The heat transfer property of glass refers to the amount of heat that is transferred through it. If the glass is well insulated, the heat transfer rate will be low.

  • Ability to recycle glass

Glass is an example of a material that is 100% recyclable and this is very effective in the popularity of this type of material. It should be noted that glass was also used as a raw material in the construction industry .

Types of Window Glass

In this part of the help article, we will introduce the types of window glass, which include:

1. Floating glass

Floating glass is labeled in large, flat panels due to the process of forming molten glass. During this process, molten glass floats on the tin, creating thin, soft glass. This glass is inexpensive and colorless and is used for quality windows, glass doors and panels of various buildings. This window glass is also used as safety glass, reflective glass and self-cleaning glass .

2. double glazed window

This type of glass is also commonly known as double glazing and its most important and practical feature is its heat and sound insulation. Double glazing consists of two or more layers of glass that are spaced apart. In this empty space between each layer of glass, air or inert gases such as argon and krypton are placed. It is interesting to know that these gases are injected with a pressure almost equal to the outside air, and in fact the reason for the insulation of double-glazed windows is the same empty space filled with gas or air, because gas molecules do not work best in heat and sound .

It should be noted that the insulation of double-glazed windows has led to the use of this type of glass in the construction of places such as airports and hospitals.

3. Tempered glass

Securite glass is actually a type of unbreakable glass that achieves an amazing strength of about three to seven times during production and manufacturing operations compared to ordinary glass; So with such dramatic resistance, buying Securite glass soon became very popular. Securite glass is made using the heat shock process and that is why they are more resistant to heat and impact than ordinary glass.

Read: 11 Principles of Building Planning in Civil Engineering (Explained)

Another important feature of Security glass is its interesting property in case of crushing. In fact, if the glass is broken by any accident or impact, the glass breaks into small, non-winning pieces that do not cause injury or damage. In general, glass securing is a process that can be performed on a variety of glasses. Also, in general, this type of glass is used in shop windows, glass doors and car side windows.

4. Mirror glass (reflex glass)

Mirrored or reflective glass is a type of glass that has a reflective coating and is able to reflect light and heat and thus reflect the surrounding images. In fact, when you look at these glasses in daylight, the glass acts as a mirror and reflects the image of the environment . Reflective glass does the opposite at night, and you can easily see inside the building from behind them. Reflective glass significantly reduces the amount of heat from the sun in the building. In fact, reflective glass, by reflecting light and heat, greatly reduces the need to use air conditioners and coolers, thereby saving costs. .

5. Laminated glass

Another type of safety glass is laminated glass . Laminated glass consists of two or more layers of raw glass or securite, which are glued together with a middle layer of varnish, which is usually made of PVB . Laminated glass is one of the glasses with high resistance to breakage and due to the presence of the middle layer, it breaks when broken with a spider pattern and broken glass pieces . The use of this type of glass is usually suitable in places where the possibility of damage by falling glass parts such as windshields, as well as in places where high resistance is required.

6. Self-cleaning glass

One of the characteristics of self-cleaning glass is that it is photocatalytic and hydrophilic. This ensures that the glass does not become dusty and always has a clean appearance. It should be noted that these glasses are very easy to maintain and use.

7. Insulated glass

Another type of window glass is insulating glass that is used for energy efficiency in different spaces. The glass may have two or three walls with argon placed between the plates. Glass cups are heated in an insulating unit, usually laminated glass or plated glass. Insulated glass is a good choice for exterior glass at home, workplace and other indoor environments that help you reduce heating and cooling costs.

Types of Windows in Terms of Appearance

Types of window classification In addition to the type of profile and the choice of glass type, there is also a classification based on the type of opening and their appearance; Therefore, in general, the types of windows in terms of appearance include:

1. Horizontal sliding windows

Horizontal sliding windows are an example of windows that are easy to use. Different types of windows have the ability to be sliding, for example, wooden windows, fiberglass, which are also examples of nature-friendly materials, can be used as sliding. Aluminum windows are also an example of windows that can be made sliding.

2. Vertical sliding window

Vertical sliding windows may look a bit like traditional old windows, but they are also used in modern designs today. Different types of materials can be used to make these windows .

3. Curved window

Curved windows are mostly used in restaurants and for the upper floors of buildings. These windows are also used in patio space. It should be noted that the use of these types of windows gives a very beautiful view of the house .

4. Combined window

Combined windows are an example of windows that are made using several window models side by side. These windows are commonly used in the design of the dining room, living room and bedroom .

5. Fixed window

As the name implies, these windows are fixed and cannot be opened or closed. It should be noted that these windows are generally used in cold areas that do not require air conditioning.


As you have read throughout the article, in this article we have introduced and guided about the types of suitable windows in construction and provided tips on choosing the right material. Finally, we recommend that you be aware of all their features before buying a window, and pay attention when choosing and buying this element. We also hope that the following guide has been helpful.

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