What Are the Various Types of Steel Structures Used in Construction

Looking for types of steel structures? Then you came to the right place. Here you will discuss in detail the types of steel structures.

Steel structures have several types, including:

  • Portal
  • Plane truss
  • Space frame (space truss)
  • Hanging (suspension)
  • Masted structures
  • Shell systems

6 Types of Steel Structures

Here are the Types of Steel Structures used in building and other construction purposes.

types of steel structures

Portal System

  1. Definition: namely a structural system consisting of posts and beams in which the posts and beams are composed of a single rod.
  2. Functional: can be used as a structure in long-span and short-span buildings.
  3. Aesthetics: this structure is simple enough that architecturally it is mediocre (impressed conventional) and has a weakness, namely the dimensions of columns and beams get bigger the bigger the span.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: stable when the portals are connected to each other.
  • Strength: strong to support a roof covering that is not too heavy, but if the span is longer, the beam will experience a greater deflection force, thus requiring larger dimensions of structural components and requiring reinforcement.
  • Shock resistance: strong against parallel forces, but weak against forces perpendicular to the structure.
  • Ease of manufacture: quite easy because the structure is not too complicated.
  • Implementation time: short / fast.
  • Main components: posts / columns (posts) and beams (beam).
  • Materials / materials: this structure can use wood, reinforced concrete, and steel.
  • Basic shape: rectangle and triangle.
  • Model / type: rectangular portal and triangle portal.
  1. Load (flow):

6. Construction details:

  1. Application:

Field Frame System

  1. Definition: namely a two-dimensional structural system of trusses.
  2. Functional: generally used in long-span roof structures (sport halls, exhibition halls, stadiums, etc.) and also bridges.
  3. Aesthetics: architecturally better than a portal and more modern.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: using a stable triangular shape (more stable than a portal).
  • Strength: strong enough to withstand loads.
  • Shock resistance: sturdy withstand forces parallel to the plane (stronger than portals) but weak against forces perpendicular to the plane.
  • Ease of creation: they are somewhat more complicated than portals.
  • Implementation time: longer than the portal.
  • Main components: rods and joints.
  • Materials / materials: generally using steel material, but can also use wood.
  • Basic shape: this structure has a basic triangular shape which is then arranged.
  • Model / type: cable system trusses, Pratt trusses, Hower trusses, indefinite static truss, funicular trusses.
  1. Load (flow):

6.Construction details:

  1. Application:

Space Frame System

  1. Definition: that is a truss structure system which is arranged in three dimensions (space).
  2. Functional: almost the same as the plane frame, generally used in long-span roof structures (sport halls, exhibition halls, stadiums, etc.).
  3. Aesthetics: can produce forms that are more complex and attractive.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: more stable than plane frame.
  • Strength: strong to support large loads because the load is evenly distributed.
  • Shock resistance: resistant to forces parallel to the structure and resistant to lateral bending (forces perpendicular to the structure).
  • Ease of manufacture: it’s quite complicated to build.
  • Implementation time: quite long / long.
  • Main components: rod (member) and connection (joint).
  • Material / material: this structure uses steel material.
  • Basic form: this structure has the basic shape of a pyramid (tetrahedron), pyramid / triangle.
  • Model / type: square on square no offset, cubic prisms, two member lengths, trigonal prisms, octahedron and tetrahedron, one member lengths.
  1. Load (flow):

6.Construction details:

  1. Application

Hanging System

  1. Definition: a structural system that uses a cable as a hanger (withstand the tensile force) of a construction.
  2. Functional: used for the construction of bridges, roofs, hangers for floors of high buildings.
  3. Aesthetics: these structures produce interesting, unique, modern forms and give a light impression.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: stable and the structure is flexible enough (the cable as a structure is always in a tensile state, with an even distribution of forces in each part).
  • Strength: cable is a material that is approximately 4 times stronger than other steel structures, of less size and mass.
  • Shock resistance: relatively resistant to shocks due to its flexible nature
  • Ease of manufacture: a little tricky.
  • Implementation time: a bit long (not as fast as the portal installation).
  • The main component: the cable as a hanger.
  • Material / material: steel (cable), concrete (column).
  • Basic shapes: tents, preloaded catenaries, and grids.
  • Model / type: incorporate suspension bridge elements, suspended chain and cable roofs, and two-way cable networks in floor structures.
  1. Load (flow):
  2. Construction details:
  • column
  • cable
  • cable connection with column / pole
  1. Application:

Masted Structure

  1. Definition: a structural system that uses poles as the main support in which the poles bear a collection of loads / forces (which are channeled from the cables hanging on the poles) which are then distributed to the ground
  2. Functional: almost the same as the suspension, namely for bridges, roofs of buildings (stadiums, ehibition halls, sports halls, etc.).
  3. Aesthetics: the resulting forms are attractive, attractive, and modern.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: stability is generated by laying the right mast to hold the cables in accordance with the distribution of the cables.
  • Strength: located on the mast (mast) as a conduit for the load to the ground received from the cables.
  • Shock resistance: this structure is strong enough to withstand both horizontal and logitudinal forces.
  • Ease of manufacture: quite complex.
  • Implementation time: quite long.
  • Main components: mast
  • Material / material: steel and concrete
  • Basic forms: orthogonal, rotational, and multiples.
  • Model / type: single mast structures and assemblages, two mast structures and assemblages, four mast structures and assemblages, membrane roofed structures, grandstand structures, and rational structures.
  1. Load (flow):
  2. Construction details:
  3. Application:

Shell System

  1. Definition: a structural system that combines plate, arc, and catenarie to produce the strength generated by its curved formation.
  2. Functional: used for buildings that use a dome shape, arched roofs (stadiums, airports, train stations, etc.).
  3. Aesthetics: the shape is dynamic, not rigid.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: curved shape creates stability to the structure.
  • Strength: obtains strength from the form not from the strength of the material.
  • Shock resistance: robust against shock because it passes its load longitudinally like a rod as well as transversely like an arc.
  • Ease of manufacture: classified as complicated / difficult.
  • Implementation time: quite long.
  • The main component: roof cover
  • Material / material: membrane
  • Basic form: the basic shape used is curved
  • Model / type: single curved system, rotational shell system, and anticlastic shell system.
  1. Load (flow):
  2. Construction details:
  • plate
  • arc
  • catenarie
  1. Application