Looking for types of steel structures? Then you came to the right place. Here you will discuss in detail the types of steel structures.

Steel structures have several types, including:

  • Portal
  • Plane truss
  • Space frame (space truss)
  • Hanging (suspension)
  • Masted structures
  • Shell systems

6 Types of Steel Structures

Here are the Types of Steel Structures used in building and other construction purposes.

types of steel structures

Portal System

  1. Definition: namely a structural system consisting of posts and beams in which the posts and beams are composed of a single rod.
  2. Functional: can be used as a structure in long-span and short-span buildings.
  3. Aesthetics: this structure is simple enough that architecturally it is mediocre (impressed conventional) and has a weakness, namely the dimensions of columns and beams get bigger the bigger the span.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: stable when the portals are connected to each other.
  • Strength: strong to support a roof covering that is not too heavy, but if the span is longer, the beam will experience a greater deflection force, thus requiring larger dimensions of structural components and requiring reinforcement.
  • Shock resistance: strong against parallel forces, but weak against forces perpendicular to the structure.
  • Ease of manufacture: quite easy because the structure is not too complicated.
  • Implementation time: short / fast.
  • Main components: posts / columns (posts) and beams (beam).
  • Materials / materials: this structure can use wood, reinforced concrete, and steel.
  • Basic shape: rectangle and triangle.
  • Model / type: rectangular portal and triangle portal.
  1. Load (flow):

6. Construction details:

  1. Application:

Field Frame System

  1. Definition: namely a two-dimensional structural system of trusses.
  2. Functional: generally used in long-span roof structures (sport halls, exhibition halls, stadiums, etc.) and also bridges.
  3. Aesthetics: architecturally better than a portal and more modern.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: using a stable triangular shape (more stable than a portal).
  • Strength: strong enough to withstand loads.
  • Shock resistance: sturdy withstand forces parallel to the plane (stronger than portals) but weak against forces perpendicular to the plane.
  • Ease of creation: they are somewhat more complicated than portals.
  • Implementation time: longer than the portal.
  • Main components: rods and joints.
  • Materials / materials: generally using steel material, but can also use wood.
  • Basic shape: this structure has a basic triangular shape which is then arranged.
  • Model / type: cable system trusses, Pratt trusses, Hower trusses, indefinite static truss, funicular trusses.
  1. Load (flow):

6.Construction details:

  1. Application:

Space Frame System

  1. Definition: that is a truss structure system which is arranged in three dimensions (space).
  2. Functional: almost the same as the plane frame, generally used in long-span roof structures (sport halls, exhibition halls, stadiums, etc.).
  3. Aesthetics: can produce forms that are more complex and attractive.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: more stable than plane frame.
  • Strength: strong to support large loads because the load is evenly distributed.
  • Shock resistance: resistant to forces parallel to the structure and resistant to lateral bending (forces perpendicular to the structure).
  • Ease of manufacture: it’s quite complicated to build.
  • Implementation time: quite long / long.
  • Main components: rod (member) and connection (joint).
  • Material / material: this structure uses steel material.
  • Basic form: this structure has the basic shape of a pyramid (tetrahedron), pyramid / triangle.
  • Model / type: square on square no offset, cubic prisms, two member lengths, trigonal prisms, octahedron and tetrahedron, one member lengths.
  1. Load (flow):

6.Construction details:

  1. Application

Hanging System

  1. Definition: a structural system that uses a cable as a hanger (withstand the tensile force) of a construction.
  2. Functional: used for the construction of bridges, roofs, hangers for floors of high buildings.
  3. Aesthetics: these structures produce interesting, unique, modern forms and give a light impression.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: stable and the structure is flexible enough (the cable as a structure is always in a tensile state, with an even distribution of forces in each part).
  • Strength: cable is a material that is approximately 4 times stronger than other steel structures, of less size and mass.
  • Shock resistance: relatively resistant to shocks due to its flexible nature
  • Ease of manufacture: a little tricky.
  • Implementation time: a bit long (not as fast as the portal installation).
  • The main component: the cable as a hanger.
  • Material / material: steel (cable), concrete (column).
  • Basic shapes: tents, preloaded catenaries, and grids.
  • Model / type: incorporate suspension bridge elements, suspended chain and cable roofs, and two-way cable networks in floor structures.
  1. Load (flow):
  2. Construction details:
  • column
  • cable
  • cable connection with column / pole
  1. Application:

Masted Structure

  1. Definition: a structural system that uses poles as the main support in which the poles bear a collection of loads / forces (which are channeled from the cables hanging on the poles) which are then distributed to the ground
  2. Functional: almost the same as the suspension, namely for bridges, roofs of buildings (stadiums, ehibition halls, sports halls, etc.).
  3. Aesthetics: the resulting forms are attractive, attractive, and modern.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: stability is generated by laying the right mast to hold the cables in accordance with the distribution of the cables.
  • Strength: located on the mast (mast) as a conduit for the load to the ground received from the cables.
  • Shock resistance: this structure is strong enough to withstand both horizontal and logitudinal forces.
  • Ease of manufacture: quite complex.
  • Implementation time: quite long.
  • Main components: mast
  • Material / material: steel and concrete
  • Basic forms: orthogonal, rotational, and multiples.
  • Model / type: single mast structures and assemblages, two mast structures and assemblages, four mast structures and assemblages, membrane roofed structures, grandstand structures, and rational structures.
  1. Load (flow):
  2. Construction details:
  3. Application:

Shell System

  1. Definition: a structural system that combines plate, arc, and catenarie to produce the strength generated by its curved formation.
  2. Functional: used for buildings that use a dome shape, arched roofs (stadiums, airports, train stations, etc.).
  3. Aesthetics: the shape is dynamic, not rigid.
  4. Constructional:
  • Stability: curved shape creates stability to the structure.
  • Strength: obtains strength from the form not from the strength of the material.
  • Shock resistance: robust against shock because it passes its load longitudinally like a rod as well as transversely like an arc.
  • Ease of manufacture: classified as complicated / difficult.
  • Implementation time: quite long.
  • The main component: roof cover
  • Material / material: membrane
  • Basic form: the basic shape used is curved
  • Model / type: single curved system, rotational shell system, and anticlastic shell system.
  1. Load (flow):
  2. Construction details:
  • plate
  • arc
  • catenarie
  1. Application