Types of Paints for Exterior and Interior Walls

Looking for types of paints for interior walls or exterior? Then you came to the right place. The use of paints in constructions, repairs and design is extremely wide. LKM manufacturers have created hundreds of types of paints, varnishes and other coating materials, which can be divided into several groups. 

Classification can be done on different bases – composition, type of substrate (substance that creates the film), purpose, type of finishing surface.

Types of Paints for Exterior Walls, Types of Paints for Interior Walls,

Types of paint according to the type of base for film formation

All color variants are based on several types of base – liquid complex composition that after drying form a solid film, in which evenly distributes all other components – .. pigments UV-protectors, preservatives, corrosion inhibitors, etc. Base-forming film defines most of the operational properties of a particular color, so that the classification is most suitable for production on that basis.

In the family of construction and special paints, there are usually four groups of colors:

  • emulsion;
  • alkyd;
  • glutinous;
  • silicate.

In turn, they are distributed by type of solvent, such as oil, nitrocellulose, water-soluble, and so on. D. But the first four classification groups are enough to determine the scope of use of color labeling, its main characteristics and possibilities.

Paints, emulsions and dispersible, soluble in water

These types of paints are among the best environmentally friendly. The fact is that the basis for them is clean water, which, by evaporating, does not harm anyone during work or during drying. The characteristic of such paints is their internal structure – acrylic resins and their derivatives, or polyvinyl chloride molecules are not soluble in water, they are suspended in the form of an emulsion or dispersion (small grains).

After application to the surface, these beads are fogged, joined and form a monolithic film that is mechanically strong and resistant to external influences of another kind. After drying, the film components are indifferent to water and no longer dissolve in it. Some paints, however, can be washed with ordinary household tools and warm water, but most water-based paints create a surface layer that can be easily washed off, some even with a light abrasive.

Designed water-soluble emulsions, dispersions and latex paints for almost all types of materials: brick, concrete, wood, monolithic, PuTTI and gypsum, metals, plywood and boards, OSB, OSB.

The difference between an emulsion and a dispersion is quite illusory – and both states determine the mixing of two or more liquids that do not interact at the chemical level. Therefore, both disperse and emulsion paints should be thoroughly mixed before use.

On previously painted glossy paints and varnishes, as well as complex in terms of finishing the surface of glass, tiles, ceramics should be applied with some reserve – only if these materials in the paint instructions for a particular type are specified. In most cases, emulsion paints are used to paint rather porous materials. These paints can be used as a base for painting with alkyd paints and varnishes.

Depending on the substances that are heavier in water, emulsion paints are divided into:

  • acrylic;
  • polyvinyl acetate;
  • latex;
  • silicone.

All paints of this group are practically odorless, dry quickly and fireproof.

Emulsion paints are used for both interior and exterior works. But before you buy, pay attention to their purpose – using the interior paint for the facade, you can start finishing again after a few months. Basic types of paints for interior – acrylic, latex, polyvinyl acetate.

Acrylic paints based on acrylic copolymers are less dense and allow the material to breathe. Although they are also applied to dry matter, the conditions for their use have been simplified. Even if the putty or plaster is not completely dried, the paint will do so in the near future.

Latex ink It consists of acrylic addition copolymers of rubber compound, which forms a solid film, which can be washed several thousand times using a cloth and soft brushes. Such compounds are used for finishing walls in damp rooms, kitchens, facade works. Great look on wallpaper, wood, metal, some brands of latex paint can be painted glass, tile, plastic.

Paints based on PVA (polyvinyl acetate) exclusively for internal works. The film they formed, although very decorative, has a low density and is afraid of water and high humidity. Excellent passing steam and providing free gas exchange, however, also allows for moisture. Use it only in rooms with a dry and normal microclimate.

Silicone emulsions and dispersions based on silicone resins. They are excellent from water, but at the same time they are permeable to water. Exceptional elasticity allows the paint layer to withstand significant and rapid temperature changes and mechanical stress. They have excellent adhesion to most mineral materials and metals, as well as to old coatings of any type of paint. The only drawback is the high price.

In pure form, emulsion and dispersion paint bases are rare. You can usually find silicone, acrylic, latex and several other polymers in one color. Of which the component is the most and the name goes and determines the main properties of the color.

Alkyd paints

The most common colors for outdoor work and protection of surfaces under the open sky. It is widely used in interior decoration, especially for painting floors, steps and other surfaces that are under significant mechanical stress.

The main binder is an alkyd resin in various variants. Solvents – drying oil, white spirit, solvent, another organic. After drying, they form very strong waterproof and chemically inert surfaces of different gloss. The peculiarity of such paints is that, under long-term work under direct sunlight, they change color to some extent and can be covered with a network of microbleeds. Oil paints or enamels can be produced on the basis of alkyd resins.

Oil Paints based on alkyd resins are produced with natural or synthetic varnish. A special feature is long (up to several days) drying. At the same time, moderately toxic substances evaporate from the surface, which is why oil paints are used for work outside or in well-ventilated rooms. Shape after drying, very strong coatings on all types of mineral materials, wood and metal. It is not afraid of ultraviolet and water, very low vapor permeability.

Enamels – Almost the same composition, but with the addition of varnishes. As a result, a glossy or semi-glossy surface of high density is obtained, which does not allow the penetration of moisture, does not enter into chemical reactions and does not change color for many years.

Silicate paints

Silicate paints are made on the basis of liquid glass and have unique properties. They have moderate vapor permeability, are resistant to temperature changes, but the surface layer is quite free and does not protect from moisture penetration into the base material. It is usually used for plastering, because it easily tolerates highly alkaline mediums. Metals and ceramics for painting with silicate paints are not recommended, except for special heat-resistant compositions.

Adhesive paints

They are similar in properties and applications of acrylic emulsions, but they are less resistant to moisture and are suitable only for dry rooms. They are usually sold as dry mixtures, which are diluted with water before use. In rooms where even a short-term increase in humidity is possible, the walls must be treated with antiseptic and anti-rain preparations before treatment. According to the types of glue can be divided into casein and dextrin.

Casein colors. They are characterized by a strong enough layer of layer and are suitable even for facade work.

Dextrin colors. They are designed for the interior, they do not tolerate high humidity, but in normal working conditions they are quite durable and suitable.

In recent years, acrylic and latex composites have been almost completely replaced from everyday life by both casein and dextrin.

Special colors

The choice of types of colors for exterior and interior decoration can not lose sight of, and compositions for special purposes, including structural, which allow to create an unusual surface texture and sophisticated shade and decorative colors, simulating different types of natural and synthetic materials.

Structural colors

After coating with such paints on the prepared smooth surface, a relief film of high strength was obtained. It can be rough, look like wood hit by a beetle, mimic water waves, or be covered with more complex volumetric patterns. Such paints can additionally, after drying, be covered with acrylic or latex paints or transparent azures. But usually the shades are completely and themselves serve as color decoration.

Types of Paints for Exterior Walls, Types of Paints for Interior Walls,

Decorative colors

Decorative paints are designed to create imitation surfaces for: old wood, leather, silk, matte, natural stone. It often creates a metallic or pearly sheen, a rainbow sheen.

Types of Paints for Exterior Walls, Types of Paints for Interior Walls,

Special colors

Different types of special inks also allow you to create some innovative effects such as fluorescent lighting in the incident and mirror rays from external sources, and are themselves a source of phosphorescent light, which accumulates energy daily in the form of a pale glow for several tens of minutes.

Types of Paints for Exterior Walls, Types of Paints for Interior Walls,

Gradually, colors of different flavors become fashionable, but they can be considered exotic – the scent still lasts only a few days after painting. Also not too common and magnetic paints, after drying they behave like metal surfaces, however, only in relation to decorative magnets.

Color marking and decoding

A very practical and practical system of indexes and labels has been developed, which at first glance allows to determine the type of color and its basic properties. Data from the most common formulations are shown in the table.

NotationDatabase for film formation
Blood pressurePolyamide
ACAcrylic copolymers
ANDPolyvinyl acetate
VNVinyl acetate
MADry oil and natural oils
MCStyrene and alkyds
EFEpoxy resin
ECEthyl cellulose
FAPhenol Halkidiki

In the bold type, the most common compositions are identified, which must be processed both in professional construction and in household repairs.

No less important are the numbers immediately after the alphabetical index. The first digit indicates the color range, and the following numbers are the serial number.

1Atmospheric resistance.
2For internal works.
3For metal.
4It is not damaged by hot water.
6thIt is resistant to fuels and lubricants.
7For use in aggressive environments.
8thHeat resistant.
9thElectrical insulation.

Oil paints (MA) also have an additional digital index, indicating the type of solvent.

  • 1 – drying oil, natural,
  • 2-oxol;
  • 3 – glyptic;
  • 4-pentafetal;
  • 5 Synthetics and combined composition.

The purpose of the paint is to decorate the surface and protect it from external influences. This double task, most colors work on “excellent” only in one case – if you choose the right composition. He must:

  • have a high level of adhesion (adherence) to the colored material;
  • after drying, as much as possible to meet the working conditions of the surface;
  • Do not degrade under the influence of atmospheric factors and humidity;
  • persistently holds color;
  • do not release toxic substances.

When choosing a color for interior or facade decoration, as well as for painting other structures, first of all, it is necessary to focus on the scope of paint application and its compliance with working conditions. When choosing a composition for pre-painted surfaces, it is necessary to ensure that there are no adverse reactions with the previous layer of coating. When components are in conflict, you need to find another color that is more suitable for work.

Then, with the same parameters, the manufacturer. The modern market is full of colors, but there are not many quality products between them. It is best to buy products from well-known brands, even if the price is slightly higher than average.

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