In this article, I will try to give detailed information about the basic types of foundations for houses.
Types of Foundations for Houses
It is applied if there is a suitable ground for the safe transfer of the load of the building close to the ground surface and within the boundary of the leash.
The foundation cannot be placed on the ground surface, even if it is rock ground. It should definitely go below the frost level. Such foundations can be applied on both dry and wet grounds.
Singular (Individual) Basics
Single foundations, also called individual or foot foundations, are applied when the foundation ground is medium hard and the building weight is low.
Such foundations are also called strip or continuous foundations. They are applied to transfer the building load to the ground during the foundation session where the foundation ground is solid.
These foundations, also called raft – general, are applied in filled floors or in cases where the safety stress is very low and the foundation floor has a very compressible feature or the foundation wall and columns are very close to each other.
If the solid ground is too deep; It is made both to benefit from the ground layers with high bearing power and to create usable volumes in the ground.
The load of the structure is transferred to the deep solid ground by means of piles driven into the ground, using the pile ends or the friction of the side surfaces of the pile. Pile types differ according to their usage.
Piles are divided into three according to the way their loads are transferred to the ground:
a) End piles
b) Floating piles
c) Partly end piles and partly floating piles
Piles are divided into two according to the way they carry the loads:
a) Pressure piles
b) Tension piles
In cases where it is necessary to have a deep solid ground and to make a wider square and solid foundation than caisson foundation and pile foundations, caisson foundations are applied. This type of foundations are built on the ground with an empty inside and lowered to the desired depth by taking advantage of its weight.
The caissons are divided into three;
a) Open Caissons,
b) Pneumatic caissons
c) Floating caissons (floating trunks)
It is built like single foundations and usually reinforced concrete. The legs are brought to the junction points of the walls specified in the plan and the bases are expanded in a square or bell shape. The upper parts of these pillars built in the pit of the open foundation are connected to each other by reinforced concrete beams.