12 Types of Concrete in Civil Engineering and Construction Projects

Knowing the type of concrete especially for civil and construction practitioners is an absolute thing to know, here we try to describe some of the common ones and are often reviewed and mentioned in civilian materials.

There are many concrete terms that some ordinary people may not know very well, hopefully this description can be material for insight for every reader.

In a building construction, concrete is a very important material. Concrete consists of various materials that are processed with cement so that it is bound to become a unit.

Compared to iron and steel with the same strength, the cost of making concrete is much cheaper. Therefore, concrete is more widely used in building construction. The types of concrete also vary based on their function and constituent materials.

Here are the types of concrete you need to know

Concrete is the most widely used material in construction in the world because it is easier to work with and has proven to be very good at supporting compressive loads on structures. Basically, concrete is made from Cement, Coarse Aggregate, Fine Aggregate, Water and some concrete is also modified with additives in the form of chemical additives or mineral additives .

Concrete has the advantage of being very strong in withstanding compressive loads but concrete also has a weakness, namely being weak in receiving tensile forces. Therefore concrete is made a composite by combining a material that is strong with resistance to tensile forces, namely reinforcing iron or steel. The combination of concrete and reinforcing steel is what we often refer to as “ Reinforced Concrete ”. The strength of concrete itself is determined by several factors, including:

  • Cement Water Factor (FAS)
  • The ratio of the ingredients
  • The quality of the ingredients
  • Fine Grain Modulus (MHB) for fine aggregates
  • Maximum size of coarse aggregate
  • Aggregate granular form
  • Conditions at the time of work
  • Conditions at the time of setting / treatment.

Based on its weight, concrete can be classified into several types, including:

1. Concrete Mortar

Mortar concrete is a type of concrete made from a mixture of limestone, sand and cement. The characteristic of this concrete is that it has good tensile strength. To produce mortar concrete, the dough mixture should be made in a ratio of 1 part cement to 4-8 parts sand. Apart from homemade mortar concrete, there are also manufactured mortars that have been mixed with various additives to improve its quality.

2. Non-Sand Concrete

Non-sand concrete or pervious concrete is made from a mixture of gravel, cement and water. As a result, the concrete forms an air cavity which makes it lighter in weight. This type of concrete is generally used in lightweight structures, concrete fences, concrete rebates, columns, or concrete buis. The advantage of this concrete is that it is produced with high absorption so that it can flow water to the layer underneath.

3. Fiber Concrete

The composition of this concrete contains fibers such as wire, asbestos, plastic, steel, and plants, so it is called fiber concrete. The fiber content in it serves to increase ductility so that the concrete does not crack easily.

4. Lightweight Concrete

Lightweight concrete is made of light weight material with the addition of additives that can form air bubbles in it. The more air bubbles inside, the pores will increase so that the weight of the concrete becomes lighter. Lightweight concrete is widely applied to non-structural walls as well as block-shaped construction in the form of bricks or filler material.

5. Vacuum Concrete

In its manufacture, hollow concrete is processed using a special vacuum to suck up the dough thinner water. As a result, the concrete contains only water that has reacted with the cement. Because of its high strength, hollow concrete is often used in the construction of skyscrapers.

6. Reinforced Concrete

Reinforced concrete consists of mortar and steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcing materials are embedded in the concrete to increase the tensile strength, because concrete has a weakness in tensile strength even though it is strong against compressive forces.

This type of reinforced concrete is very commonly used in various construction projects that have wide span structures. For example, floor slabs, roads, bridges, and building columns, as well as the construction of deep foundations, concrete slab beams, tie beams, and shear walls.

7. Sticky Concrete

Prestressed concrete goes through a process similar to that of reinforced concrete, except that the steel reinforcement is tensioned before being embedded in the concrete. The reinforcement is made of special materials such as pc wire, pc stand, or pc bar. The use of this reinforcing material is carried out so that the concrete does not crack because it has to withstand large bending loads. This concrete is usually applied to support building structures that have a wide span.

8. Precast Concrete

Precast concrete is made in a workshop or factory outside the construction site. After being stored for a long time, it is shipped and assembled on the project using heavy equipment such as a mobile crane. This concrete is worked outside the project area usually due to a narrow location problem or lack of manpower to make concrete. Besides that, it is also so that the quality of the concrete is better. Examples of precast concrete available in the market include stairs, fence panelsu ditch, and facades.

9. Mass Concrete

This concrete is concrete that is produced in large quantities. Generally, mass concrete has dimensions of more than 60 cm. This concrete is usually applied to building pillars, dams, or large foundations.

10. Cyclope Concrete

Siklop concrete is a building material consisting of a mixture of K-175 quality concrete and mango stone. Even though its strength is below that of reinforced concrete, cycled concrete is stronger than masonry construction because it can withstand tensile and compressive stresses. This concrete is usually applied to dams, bridges, or buildings that are submerged in water.

11. Stamped Concrete

This type of concrete is commonly called patterned concrete or molded concrete, its manufacture uses rubber material that has been designed using a mold, usually making molds resembling natural bricks, slate, cobblestone, tiles, and even wooden boards.

The stamped concrete pattern can be applied as an overlay on an existing concrete slab, or it can be molded into freshly poured concrete before it hardens.

12. Ready Mix Concrete

This type of concrete is a material for casting which is made in a special place which is usually called a batching plant, which is cured at the casting location using a mixer or molen truck.

Now, after knowing the types of concrete available on the market, you can choose the right concrete for building construction projects. For more information on this material, you can refer to the architect or contractor working on your project. Hope it is useful.