Types of Building Materials Used in Construction and Their Uses

Looking for Types of building materials? Then here we will discuss uses and types of building material that are used in construction.

Construction materials are the inputs used in the construction or renovation of houses, buildings, roads, bridges, among other works.

They can be obtained directly from nature, such as sand, stone and water, or obtained by physical and / or chemical industrial processes, as in the case of cement, wooden boards, floors, doors, pipes and hydraulic connections.

Following are the topics covered in this article:

The building materials can also be divided according to their function, for example, there are sealing materials that have the purpose of sealing and closing environments, such as bricks, doors and windows.

There are also materials with the function of protecting and guaranteeing the durability of construction, as is the case with floors, coverings and paints that protect floors and walls.

The third group is made up of the materials responsible for supporting the building loads and transferring them safely to the ground. These are called structural materials and are composed of steel, concrete, metal structures and structural blocks.

For you to know a little more about the construction materials, below we will show a summary about the main materials used in the work:

What Are the Types of Building Materials?


The cement is a hydraulic active binder obtained from natural or artificial baking limestone. It was discovered in 1824 by Joseph Aspdin in Portland.

It is one of the most used materials in civil construction. With it, the concrete used in foundations and structures is manufactured, and the mortar used in the laying of blocks and coverings.


The sand is a fine aggregate resulting in fragmentation of rocks such as basalt, quartz, silica, limestone, granite and gneiss. It has different particle sizes classified as fine, medium or coarse sand.

It is also one of the most used materials in the work. Sand is used together with cement in the manufacture of concrete and mortar.

Stone gravel

The crushed stone is the resultant coarse aggregate of mechanical fragmentation of rocks such as basalt, granite, gneiss and limestone. It has different granulometria classified in gravel 0 to 5.

It is mixed with cement, sand and water in the manufacture of concrete used in the construction of foundations, structures and sidewalks.


The additives are substances added to concrete or mortar order to modify the properties of the fresh weight or the final product.

There are several types of additives and brands. There are additives that change the fluidity of the masses, the curing time and the impermeability for example.


The concrete is the material obtained from the mixture of cement, water, sand, crushed stone and additives. It can be made on site or purchased ready-made.

It is used in all types of works, even the houses made of Steel Frame use concrete in the foundations. That is, it is used from the manufacture of sidewalks to large structural parts such as viaducts.


The lime is obtained from limestone and magnesium extracted and cut mines and natural deposits. It was the first binder used in construction.

Today it is used in the manufacture of mortars for laying and covering, paintings, asphalt mixtures, soil stabilization, production of thermal insulators, manufacture of silicate-limestone blocks, among other applications.


The mortar is a homogeneous mass with adhesion and curing properties. It can be prepared on site or industrialized.

It is used in lifting masonry, finishing walls and laying floors and coverings of all types.


The steel is an alloy mainly composed of iron and carbon. With only 2% carbon in its composition, steel offers good mechanical resistance at low cost.

It is used in the manufacture of steel frames for reinforced concrete foundations and structures.

Ceramic brick

The ceramic bricks are shaped pieces of paving stone commonly used in construction. They are made of clay and are widely used in the construction of houses and buildings.

They are indispensable for the construction of sealing or structural masonry, walls, barbecues, benches, etc.

Concrete block

The concrete blocks have a parallelepiped shape and two large vertical holes. They are also used in the construction of walls and walls.

They are the most used in structural masonry, so many do not remember that there are blocks for sealing masonry as well.


The timber is primarily a compound material of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It is produced by woody plants that we commonly call trees.

It is used in several stages of the work, for example, the boards and battens are used for concrete forms, the pontaletes as props of slabs, and the rafters, beams and slats in the roof structures.

Roof tile

The tiles are the pieces together used to cover the roofs of houses, buildings, sheds, etc.

They are used on all types of roofs, exposed or embedded. The tiles are responsible for the coverage, protection and thermal comfort of the buildings.


The paint is a liquid substance, commonly pigmented, used as a covering and finishing of walls and frames in general. It provides the surfaces with protection, waterproofing, finishing and resistance.

They are used for painting internal and external walls, wood, metals, among other construction surfaces.

Doors and windows

The frames , or better, the doors and windows are the pieces that open and close the entrances and exits of the rooms.

They allow or prevent the passage of people, air and lighting. In addition, they provide safety, functionality and protection against the entry of excessive heat or cold and rain.

Floors and coverings

The floors and walls are the parts used to coat the walls and floor. They are very important pieces, because in addition to making your home more beautiful, they help to protect and waterproof surfaces.

They are used both as decoration and as protection for surfaces against water infiltration, wear and other damage.

Hydraulic materials

The hydraulic materials are the parts that make up the distribution system of water and sewage Property.

They transport water from the street to the water tank and points of use such as showers and taps.

They are also responsible for collecting and directing the sewage to the public treatment network and draining rainwater.

Electric materials

The electrical materials are the wires, cables, conduits, circuit breakers, plugs, switches, lamps and other parts that allow the transmission of electrical energy from the street to your home in a safe manner.

They are responsible for the safe conduction of electricity from the street to points of use within the building such as plugs, lamps, showers and more.

How to Buy Building Materials?

Quality is one of the most important characteristics when buying construction materials. It is the guarantee of durability and safety for you and your family.

Low quality materials, which are often the cheapest, most often require maintenance and more frequent changes. Not to mention that they can cause damage to the house such as infiltrations, cracks and cracks.

For this reason, what at first may seem like an economy ends up becoming a constant source of headaches in the future.

Quality construction materials, in addition to durability, must provide good workability, hygiene, safety and thermal and acoustic comfort to the environments that are applied.

Another point of attention at the time of purchase is knowing how to calculate the required quantity of each material. That is why we provide pages on our website explaining how to calculate and various calculators to assist you in calculations. Enjoy!

How to Store Construction Materials?

Each type of material requires specific care when storing, so there is no general rule.

On the other hand, there are good practices that can be applied to all types of materials, for example:

  • Avoid exposure to the unit by storing materials in covered locations and on platforms and platforms
  • If it is not possible to use a covered place, it is recommended to cover the materials with plastic canvas
  • Observe and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations contained in the product packaging
  • Use products only within the expiration date
  • Once opened, keep the products in their original packaging


As you can see, there are many types and variations of construction materials.

Basically, for each constructive technique there is a set of materials with varied specifications and measures to suit all types of projects.

We hope that this information will help you to know more about the materials that will be used in your construction.

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