Classification and Types of Bricks Used for Construction

Brick as the oldest building material is found almost everywhere,and we will try to understand in detail what types of bricks exist, depending on the material of its production, the scope of its use, methods of production and dimensions. The format and composition is diverse, this material has gone through a difficult path in the history of civilization.

Types of bricks depending on the production material and area of ​​destination, Types of Bricks Used for Construction,

Types of bricks used for construction depending on the material of production

Each species is designed for a range of uses or processes. And the first indicator you can use to classify a brick is the material from which it is made.


Ceramic bricks are made of high quality clay without marble and sulphates. Usually, the raw materials are used with a minimal proportion of undecomposed calcite in the composition. Initially, bricks are formed, after which they are dried and baked in an oven at a temperature of 1000 ° C 0 C. Exposure of the bricks to heat treatment is very important to avoid overheating or burning. And in the first and second cases, the quality of the brick will deteriorate significantly. The undamaged brick looks bright and the burnt brick will have shades of black. A good aluminum product has a semi-matt surface, creates a distinctive sound when hit and has a porous structure when broken.

Ceramic brick


Silica brick consists of purified quartz rocks (sand) and lime and moisture alone make up about 10% by weight of the raw materials. The percentage may differ from the composition and quality of the prepared weight. The main condition in the production of a good product is the cleaning of components from organic impurities, clays, and manganese. Lime should not contain a lot of calcium oxide, it should not burn it. The production process takes place under great pressure. This type of brick is warmer than ceramic. Use it for the construction of walls and partitions.

Lime brick


The composition of this type of brick usually includes various projections of calcareous rocks, marble, shells and dolomite, which are formed during the development of surface mines. These components make up 90% of the raw material volume. The second indispensable component of the composition is high quality Portland cement. It plays the role of the main astringent component in the volume of the prepared mass occupying 6-8%. The bricks are made by pressing in special shapes. The quality of the water itself, which is part of the composition as a chemical reagent, is very important for compression. The result of compaction is bricks with an ideal shape and size. Hyper-applied brick is used for cladding the walls of buildings. The surface of the bricks themselves can be smooth or have an invoice under the so-called “abrasion stone”.


Classification of bricks depending on the purpose of use

There are several types of bricks in the construction, depending on the area of ​​use.

Building or private

A building or ordinary brick (GOST 530-2007 from 01.03.2008) is used to arrange both the interior walls of buildings and the exterior. For the application of such variants of bricks, it is also possible to build a house, but only with subsequent heating or protective furniture of the facade. This type of brick is far from ideal and may contain small chips, which do not affect its strength.


Facing bricks

Faced brick, (other names: face, facade) – this is the most smooth and perfect material without defects. The maximum permissible deviations according to GOST are not greater than 4 mm. in length, 3 mm. width and 2 mm. in height. It can be used as a malleable, ceramic, silicate or hyper-pressed brick.

The relatively low cost of tiling ceramic bricks has an advantage over decorative types for the price. By using this brick as a cladding, it is necessary to know that it is used in lowlands and humid climatic zones due to its low hygroscopic properties. If the use of silicate species is unacceptable due to the hydrophobic properties of the product (moisture absorption). On the contrary, in dry and warm latitudes of silicate is the best choice of all types of bricks, the building turns out stable against temperature fluctuations, comfortable.

There are two types of facing bricks: shaped and shaped bricks.

1. Textures brick , with smooth or uneven edges (Ragged stone) are made for cladding facades of buildings and secure fences. The edges of such a product can be, for example, rolled, smooth and without processing.


2. Shaped version with various profile configurations, is designed for laying complex shapes around windows, window sills, arches, columns, fences, gazebos. For example, shaped types of building bricks with rounded edges for corners are ideal for arranging complex building facades, namely corners.

Shaped bricks

The color range of brick types is huge and ranges from light yellow to almost black.

Oven, fireclay brick

Furnaces, fireclay bricks, refractory product complies with GOST 390-96, has a regular geometric shape, granular base and can be straw in color, with red or brown spots. These are used for insulation and construction projects are subject to constant high temperatures (furnaces, fireplaces). Creation of a heat-resistant jacket with the function of protecting the furnace from direct fire or hot coal.

The main properties that these products should have are: heat resistance, high cycling, low thermal conductivity. Chamotte must withstand relatively long heating and many cycles at 1000 ° C without loss of quality and strength. The heat-resistant version does not necessarily have to be created in the correct form, there are other formats for these products (SHA-25 and SHA-47) – wedge-shaped.

Oven oven

Clinker brick

Ceramic slag brick is made of refractory clay layers, which are extruded until a homogeneous mass is formed. The choice of clay as a raw material for production is carefully adjusted. The composition of the clay should be clean and malleable, it should not contain chalk and alkali metal salts, unnecessary minerals. During the heat treatment process, the clinker achieves the highest strength and good density. Low hygroscopicity and undemanding to negative temperatures. Slate clay has a suitable composition for this purpose, is elastic and heat-resistant.

This brick has many colors and textures. Therefore, sinter brick is used for lining walls, plinths, and paving garden paths.


Difference between ceramic bricks according to the method of production and the type of forming

The production of ceramic bricks is divided into two main types according to the molding method. Brick is a plastic type of casting and brick is a semi-dry type of molding.

1. Plastic bricks . Plastic molding involves several processes and is made of plastic clay with a moisture content of 15-21%. The main types of building bricks are extruded by means of profile mouthpieces of various screw presses. There are both vacuum and conventional devices. Fully consolidated stone is usually pressed on the device without vacuum and hollow version – on vacuum plants and leaves.

2. Semi-dry casting bricks . Semi-dry forming products are also made from clay by pressing and roasting. The main difference from the plastic method is that the raw materials are preliminarily brought to a certain humidity (about 8-14%). It is then compressed in a mold and only then continues to bake in carousel or tunnel ovens. The low humidity of the semi-finished products allows the final products to maintain the correct shape and clean surface.

Types of quality bricks for house construction, mainly obtained by molding plastics. They have smooth surfaces and smooth surfaces.

Types of bricks depending on the nature of the filling

Depending on the filling, the brick can be hollow and solid. The choice of this brick brick depends on the extent and object whose construction is intended for its use.

Full bricks

As the name suggests, such a brick has no empty spaces. In the standard silicate product, the roughness in the form of pores does not exceed 12-13%, as far as the national version is concerned. In the clinker product, the porosity of the material is up to 5%. The bearing walls are built only of solid bricks.

Solid ceramic and silicate bricks

Hollow brick

In the case of a hollow silica brick, the index of the hollow core ranges from 24 to 30%. The values ​​of ceramic products vary slightly. Hollowness can reach 45%. The openings or chambers perfectly retain heat and increase the percentage of the overall sound insulation of the walls. There is a decorative and facing brick with 4, 6, 8 and even ten chambers of both rounded and rectangular shape. Of course, the filling of bricks affects the strength of the entire building structure. Hollow versions are mainly used for making partitions. Types of bricks with empty spaces are not used in furnaces and fireplaces.

Hollow brick

Types of bricks and their sizes

We are starting to look for the right material for wall or wall cladding, it is worth paying special attention to the standards for the edges of the product. This will help to correctly calculate the wall spacing and select the required amount.

There are 3 standard brick sizes:

NameSize, mm
Everyone250x120x65 mm.
One half250x120x88 mm.
Twice250x120x138 mm.

European standards have the following standard dimensions:

DF-240x115x52 mm;

2 DF-240x115x113 mm;

NF-240x115x71 mm;

RF-240x115x61 mm;

WDF-210x100x65 mm;


Regardless of size, each brick has the following three faces:

The name of the brick face

1. Bed linen is a working part of the product in which it is placed.

2. Spoon part of the stone – the edge of the product.

3. The pin is the smallest part of the product.

At the end of the topic, I would like to add a few tips for choosing brick products.

The first thing you need to do when choosing a brick is to find out its brand, strength, resistance to external influences. Check already built buildings or buildings from it. Find out when the building is in operation, if there is any separation, cracks in the walls, corners.

The second and probably most important rule is to inspect the production or warehouse before buying for a fight, marriage by size, balances and unsold. The appearance of the goods and the purity of production can say a lot about quality.

Classification of Bricks Based on Their Quality

The bricks used in construction are classified as follows:

  • First Class Bricks
  • Second Class Bricks
  • Third class bricks and
  • Fourth class bricks

If you have any questions regarding this article, comment below.

Share your love