Principles of Foundation Design in Construction

Looking for the foundation design principles used in construction? Then you came to the right place.

Foundation design could be considered as similar to a pillar design. The designer of the pillar should realize the heap to be conveyed, the heap carrying limit of the bar, the amount it will deflect and whether there are any drawn-out impacts like a jerk, dampness development, and so forth If the determined shaft area is, for reasons unknown, not sufficiently able to help the heap or is probably going to deflect unduly, at that point the pillar segment is changed. 

Foundation Design Principles

Here are the principles of foundation design used in construction:

  1. Evaluation of site conditions with regards to the site and soil investigation report. 
  2. Calculation of ASL (anticipated structural loading(s)).
  3. Selection of the foundation 
    1. Soil conditions;
    2. Kind of structure;
    3. Structural loading(s);
    4. Economic factors;
    5. Time factors relative to the proposed contract period;
    6. Construction problems.
  4. Sizing the selected foundation with regards to loading(s), ground bearing limit, and any presumably future developments of the building or construction. 

Key components for choosing the sort of foundation 

The vital things to consider are: 

The ground type: regardless of whether topsoil soil, mud, sediment, silty dirt, clayey residue, rock, or hard rock. 

The genuine burden that the foundations will apply into the ground and the presence of pivotal loads and bending minutes. 

The accessibility of plants and gear for the kind of foundation to be exhumed. 

Abilities and information obstructions; the innovation to design, plan and build a specific kind of foundation may determine foundation decisions. 

Accessible construction materials like steel, wood heaps, and solid tangle/pontoons can likewise influence the kind of foundation. 

The site and geological terrain conditions, landforms, forms, the prevailing vegetation, nearness to water bodies, etc may likewise influence the kind of foundation. 

Kinds of foundations 

There are two main kinds of foundation: 

  • Deep foundations. 
  • Shallow foundations. 

The base of a Deep Foundation is regularly 3m or more subterranean. They are regularly more costly to build, incompletely due to the more prominent volumes of ruin that should be unearthed, and require more significant levels of ability, innovation, and aptitude. 

Shallow foundations are laid nearer to ground level and will in general be simpler and less expensive to develop. They may require less design and construction input when contrasted with Deep foundations.

Basic Principles of Architectural Design

Rhythm ( Accentuation & Rhythm )

In architectural design, what is meant by rhythm is the arrangement of a harmonious element. Even these elements can vary from shape, color, to furniture and room decor.

The principle of rhythm in the architectural design itself is divided into two types of rhythm. The first is static rhythm. In architectural design, a static rhythm is a repetition of the same pattern and is consistent.

An example could be consistently laying out columns every 3 meters apart. Another application can be in the form of wall decoration applications such as photo frames with the same position and distance consistently.

The second principle of rhythm architectural design is dynamic rhythm, in which the determinants of rhythmic repetition can be more than one aspect and vary. In architectural design, an example of the application of the dynamic rhythm principle is the color pattern on the facade of a house or building facade that is alternated regularly and consistently. Examples in colors such as brown-white-green. Other applications in architectural design can be such as the arrangement of furniture for chairs – tables – chairs – chairs – tables – chairs and so on.

Composition ( Sequence )

Composition or sequence in architectural design is the arrangement of the elements as a whole so that the flow becomes more comfortable. An example of applying the composition to an architectural design that is easiest to understand is the arrangement of a spatial composition plan, such as when you want to organize a living room interior.

In architectural design, each room is generally divided into three zonal functions, namely public, private, and service. The public zone concerns functions where space is more likely to be used by people outside of the core members of the home user such as the living room or terrace.

private zone in architectural design is a zone where its function is exclusively reserved for the nuclear family of the house’s occupants, such as a bedroom. While the service zone is an area where its function is more for maintenance and home care activities such as kitchens, warehouses, or laundry rooms.

Each room needs to be arranged according to this zonal groove and function. Such as the living room at the front and the bedroom which is not opposite or directly adjacent to the service zone such as the kitchen.


A good architectural design is a balanced design. For this reason, the next principle in architectural design is balance. The balance in the architectural design itself is divided into two.

The principle of balance in architectural design is symmetrical balance. Determining asymmetrical balance composition is fairly easy. Just imagine that there is a line in the middle of the architectural object and whether the two sides are visually similar or reflective. This can apply in the arrangement of furniture and furniture, decorating walls, facades, and arrangement of building plans.

In addition to asymmetrical architectural design, balance can also be achieved with an asymmetric architectural design composition, in which the arrangement is deliberately formed unbalanced by emphasizing contrast on one point or side in space. The principle of asymmetric architectural design is quite risky because it requires a high sense of art to be able to create asymmetric architectural design compositions that look aesthetically pleasing and good.

Point of Interest  or Contrast 

This architectural design principle is also often referred to as a focal point. Simply put, the principle of this architectural design is to create a contrasting element which is the main concern of a design. Be it in the interior or architecturally.

There are many ways to implement this principle in the architectural design of your home or interior. Various elements ranging from shape, color, size, position, to texture or visual. An example of a simple application is the use of a unique sofa in a striking color like red or yellow in the middle of a room that is dominated by white.

Another example of applying this architectural design principle in terms of form is to create a unique window design with a rectangular shape between a series of windows with a circular shape.


Have you ever entered a room that is very wide but has a very low ceiling height? Spaces like this can give their own atmosphere and impression, such as feeling depressed or stuffy. This is what makes understanding the scale very important to present a good architectural design.

Scale is the ratio of a space or building to the environment or other architectural elements. Basically, the scale in architectural design has no special rules because the scale can be adjusted according to the desired nuance or impression.

For example, to get a grand impression, you can make a room with a higher height than other rooms or standards in general.

Design Unity

Architectural designs may vary, but how can these various architectural elements look harmonious when put together into an architectural design product? That’s when the principle of unity in design is needed or unity in designing a product.

Providing harmony for each element in architectural design can be done with various things such as the use of colors, shapes, patterns, materials to specific styles of design.

Suppose you have various types of chairs with different design styles in the dining room, by providing special elements, such as pillows, with the same color as the dominant color. The composition of the chair arrangement will now look more harmonious.

Another application of this principle in architectural design is the use of the same form. Let’s say you arrange different types of photos in frames of different sizes and colors. Give it the same square frame shape and your photo frame display composition will look more unified as a whole.

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