Pedestrian is the movement or circulation or movement of people or humans from one place to the point of origin (origin) to another place as a destination (destination) on foot (Rubenstein, 1992). Pedestrian paths are pedestrian sections, both integrated and separated from roads, which are intended for pedestrian infrastructure and facilities as well as connecting activity centres and/or mode change facilities.
The term pedestrian comes from the Latin, namely pedesres which means people who walk. Pedestrian paths were first recognized in 6000 BC in Chirokitia, Cyprus. At that time the pedestrian was made of limestone and then the surface was raised to the ground and at certain intervals and a ramp was made to go to the residential group on both sides (Darmawan, 2004).
Pedestrians are pedestrian paths that are generally parallel to the road axis and higher than the pavement surface to ensure the safety of the pedestrians concerned. Current pedestrian paths can be in the form of sidewalks, pavements, sidewalks, pathways, plazas and malls. A good pedestrian path must be able to accommodate every pedestrian activity smoothly and safely. A good pedestrian system will reduce dependence on motorized vehicles in the city centre, increase visitors to the city centre, improve or promote human scale systems, create more business activities, and also help improve air quality.
Functions of Pedestrian
Pedestrian network infrastructure and facilities in general serve to facilitate the movement of pedestrians from one place to another easily, smoothly, safely, comfortably and independently. The pedestrian path not only functions as a place for humans to move or accommodate some of the activities of human circulation to meet their daily needs, but is also a space where human activities are carried out, such as buying and selling activities, social interaction media, visual guidelines or the characteristics of an environment. Area.
The function of the pedestrian path is as follows:
- Pedestrianization can foster healthy activities so as to reduce the risk of crime.
- Pedestrianization can stimulate various economic activities so that attractive business areas will develop.
- Pedestrianization is very profitable as a venue for promotional activities, exhibitions, advertising, and campaigns and so on.
- Pedestrianization can be attractive to social activities, mental and spiritual development.
- Pedestrianization is able to present a specific, unique and dynamic atmosphere and environment in the downtown environment.
- Pedestrianization also has an impact on efforts to reduce the level of air and noise pollution due to the reduced number of motorized vehicles passing by.
Meanwhile, according to the Regulation of the Minister of Public Works No. 3 of 2014 concerning guidelines for planning, providing, and utilizing pedestrian network infrastructure and facilities in urban areas, pedestrian functions or pedestrian paths are:
- The connecting line between activity centres, block to block, and parcel to parcel in urban areas.
- An integral part of the system for changing other modes of movement.
- Social interaction space.
- Supporters of the beauty and comfort of the city.
- Disaster evacuation route.
Pedestrian Crossing Characteristics
According to the Regulation of the Minister of Public Works No. 3 of 2014 concerning guidelines for planning, providing, and utilizing pedestrian network infrastructure and facilities in urban areas, the characteristics of pedestrian paths that are taken into consideration in developing urban areas are as follows:
This characteristic is influenced by the dimensions of the human body and the power of motion used to determine the space requirements for normal human movement. The physical ability of pedestrians is related to the distance that can be travelled. Things that affect the distance walking distance are:
- Motive: A strong motive for walking can influence people to walk longer or farther. Recreational motives have a relatively shorter distance, while shopping motives can be carried out for more than 2 hours with a distance of up to 2.5 km without being fully realized by pedestrians.
- Comfort is influenced by weather factors and types of activities: Bad weather will reduce people’s desire to walk. In Indonesia, with hot weather people only want to travel 400 meters, while for shopping activities to carry goods, they want to walk no more than 300 meters.
- Availability of public transportation facilities: The availability of adequate public transportation facilities in terms of their placement will encourage people to walk further than if these facilities were not available evenly.
- Land use patterns and activities: Walking in the shopping centre feels good up to a distance of 500 meters. More than this distance, other facilities are needed that can reduce the fatigue of people walking, such as seating and food/beverage kiosks.
Pedestrian behaviour can cause increased space for pedestrians. These behaviors include pedestrians carrying umbrellas, shopping baskets for women, or the habit of walking together while talking in the pedestrian path requiring additional pedestrian path width.
The psychological characteristics of pedestrians are in the form of psychological preferences which are needed to understand the desires of pedestrians when carrying out traffic activities. Pedestrians prefer to avoid physical contact with other pedestrians and will usually choose a larger private space, so that adequate longitudinal distance is required to obtain comfortable pedestrian movement.
There are several environmental characteristics that play a role in the level of service for pedestrian network infrastructure and facilities which are the basis for the design criteria for pedestrian network infrastructure and facilities, namely:
- Convenience, such as the availability of weather protection and public transport stops.
- Enjoyment, such as the ability to walk and the availability of signs.
- Safety, such as pedestrian safety with vehicular traffic.
- Security, such as the availability of traffic lights, certainty of unobstructed views when crossing, not slippery, and the suitability of the amount of space for pedestrians with environmental conditions.
- Economics, such as pedestrian cost efficiency associated with travel delays and inconvenience.
- Linkages between activities and other modes of transportation as well as types of land use or activities.
Types of Pedestrian
According to Iswanto (2006), pedestrian paths can be grouped into several types, namely:
Based on the purpose of the location, pedestrian paths are divided into three types, namely:
- Travel to and from the terminal: Pedestrian paths are designed from one place to the location of the transportation terminal and vice versa such as shelter stops and parking lots.
- Functional travel: Pedestrian paths are designed for specific purposes, such as going to work, places to study, shopping, restaurants and so on.
- Travel for recreational purposes: The pedestrian path is designed in relation to being used in the wearer’s spare time, such as to the cinema, to the gallery, to music concerts to sports arenas and so on.
Based on function
Based on the characteristics and functions, pedestrian paths are divided into four types, namely:
- Pedestrian paths are paths made for pedestrians to make it easier for pedestrians to reach certain places, which can provide pedestrians with smoothness, comfort, and safety.
- Crossing lane, which is a path made for pedestrians as a means of crossing, in order to avoid the risk of dealing directly with vehicles.
- Plaza, which is a path made for pedestrians as a means of recreation and a place of rest.
- Pedestrian mall, which is a path made for pedestrians as a means of various activities, such as selling, sitting relaxed, and so on.
Pedestrian Elements and Criteria
Pedestrian paths are spaces used for walking or wheelchairs for persons with disabilities independently and are designed based on the needs of people to move safely, easily, comfortably and without obstacles. Pedestrian paths should not be less than 1.2 meters which is the minimum required width for people with a dog, walkers and pedestrians. The criteria for pedestrian paths are as follows:
- In places where the presence of pedestrians has caused conflicts with vehicle traffic or interferes with other uses, such as parks, and others.
- In a location that can provide benefits both in terms of safety, security, comfort and smoothness.
- If it intersects with a traffic lane, the vehicle must be equipped with signs and markings or lights stating warnings/instructions for road users.
- Pedestrian corridors (other than tunnels) have clear visibility in all directions.
- In planning lane widths and technical specifications, consideration must be given to the designation for people with disabilities.
The halter is a roofed building located in the median of the road that is used for changing modes, namely from pedestrians to public transportation modes. The bus stop can be placed on the sidewalk or shoulder of the road with a distance of at least 1 meter from the edge of the traffic lane. Requirements for the building structure to have a minimum width of 2 meters, a length of 4 meters and a height of the lowest part of the roof at least 2.5 meters from the floor. The criteria for the stop are as follows:
- The distance between bus stops/shelters and waiting stalls is at a radius of 300 meters and at potential points of the area.
- Using materials that have high durability such as metal.
- Protected from the weather (hot or rain).
- Placement on the side of a busy road.
- The minimum stop length is equal to the length of the city bus, which allows passengers to get on or off from the front door or the back door.
Ramps are assistive devices that facilitate movement over lower supports. The ramp is made so that the surface should not be slippery but grooves should not be made, because these grooves can be filled with water which makes the ramp slippery. The ramp is made with a slope between 7 to 15 degrees and a maximum of 20 degrees. The criteria for roadside ramps are as follows:
- Must not be taller than the maximum height of one step or 6 inches.
- The sloping edges make it difficult for the physically disabled to walk and when it is dark it will be dangerous for all pedestrians. This use should be limited.
- The laying of roadside ramps is usually on the road to the building, the road to the sidewalk (for physical disabilities).
Pedestrian paths must also be equipped with the needs of people with disabilities to make it easier for them to move. Guiding blocks are used as guide lines for people with disabilities, especially the visually impaired. The guiding block is located along the pedestrian path.
Pedestrian paths must be made in such a way that when it rains the surface is not slippery, there is no puddle of water and it is recommended to be equipped with vegetation or shade trees. Vegetation Placed in plant paths (minimum 150 cm), branching 2 meters above the ground, branching shape is not bent, dense leaf mass and planted in rows.
The lighting is located outside the free space of the pedestrian path with a distance of 10 meters between the lights. The lighting is made with a maximum height of 4 meters. Using materials that have high durability such as metal and cast concrete. The design is simple, geometric, modern, futuristic, functional, made of anti-validalism materials, especially light bulbs. The criteria for lighting are as follows:
- Placed on a crosswalk.
- The installation is fixed and has structural value.
- The light is bright enough so that when pedestrians cross, road users can be seen both in the dark/at night.
- The light does not dazzle road users and vehicle traffic.
Seating is located outside the pedestrian-free space with a distance between seats of 10 meters. The seats are made with dimensions of 0.4-0.5 meters wide and 1.5 meters long. Using materials that have high durability such as metal and cast concrete.
The safety fence is located outside the free space of the pedestrian path at certain points that require protection. The safety fence is made with a height of 0.9 meters. Using materials that are resistant to weather and damage, such as metal and concrete.
The trash can is located outside the free space of the pedestrian path with a distance between the trash cans of 20 meters. The design of the height of the trash can must be reachable by hand in entering the dirt/garbage (height 60 – 70 cm). The types of trash bins provided have different types according to their function (dry trash cans and wet trash bins). Trash cans must be easy to transport and use materials that have high durability such as metal and cast concrete.
Signs, Signs and Information Boards
Signs are the main tool that regulates, warns, and directs road users so that road users can easily be directed to a destination. Effective signs are to meet needs, attract the attention and respect of road users, provide messages that are simple and easy to understand, and also provide sufficient time for road users to respond. The criteria for markings, signs and information boards are:
- Located in the open, the height of the billboard is parallel to road conditions.
- This sign contains the location and facilities.
- Not covered by trees.
- Using materials that have high durability and do not cause glare effects.