The following are 30 terms in concrete in the discussion of construction that need to be understood by construction practitioners, as a reference and a guide in implementing projects that are being worked on.
In addition to civil engineering subject matter, the term in concrete often appears in discussions about construction from experts and builders in the field.
In general, concrete itself is a mixture of cement, water, and aggregate. The mixture is put together, resulting in a hydration process; the main material hardens so that it becomes a strength with the expected shape and becomes strong.
Concrete has properties that are malleable when freshly mixed and is strong and durable after becoming hard so that it can support skyscrapers, bridges, and roads.
Termed Used in Concrete
Here are the terms in concrete that you will often encounter in construction projects:
Added material to speed up concrete bonding.
Reference or formwork is a tool for molding concrete according to the size, shape, and design planned.
A mixture of fine aggregate and Portland cement, and water.
4. Additives and admixtures
Both are additives. The difference is that additive material is an additional material that is entered during the cement manufacturing process at the factory. While admixture is an additional material that is included when making concrete in the project.
An aggregate is a granular form of material such as gravel, crushed stone, sand, and iron kiln scale which is used together with the binder to form hydraulic cement or mortar. There are several types of aggregates, namely light, fine, and coarse aggregates.
Anker is a medium for finding a connection to precast concrete.
7. Reinforced concrete
Concrete is internally filled with reinforcement, the number and extent of which have been determined whether using prestress or not.
8. Normal concrete
Normal concrete is concrete with a content weight of between 2,200 to 2,500 kg and m3 which uses natural aggregate which is broken down or not broken without the use of additional materials.
9. Prestressed concrete
Reinforced concrete is processed with internal stress to reduce the potential tensile stress caused by the workload.
10. Plos concrete
Plossed concrete is concrete without reinforcement or its reinforcement is less than the minimum requirement.
The condition of the concrete is excess water so that the cement water rises to the surface.
12. Cast in situ
Implementation of precast concrete in the field.
Watertight construction is designed to support construction projects that function to stem the concrete mix from being mixed with the soil, rivers, or the surrounding environment.
Cylinders or boxes made of concrete with various thicknesses. For cylindrical form, it is generally 5cm thick and 10cm in diameter.
15. Cement Water Factor (FAS)
The cement water factor is the ratio of the amount of cement and water in the concrete.
16. Hammer test
Test the concrete hammer to test the hardened concrete layers.
17. Concrete Construction
Concrete construction is concrete that functions as a construction element.
18. Mix Design
Concrete mix design based on weight or volume.
Reference to carry out concrete casting.
Is a draw on prestressed concrete after the concrete has hardened?
Withdrawal of prestressed concrete before casting.
22. Rapid Clamp
A tool used to clamp a reference to beam and column structures.
23. Ready Mix Concrete
Ready-mix concrete is ready-mix concrete whose composition has been set by the factory.
Retarder is an additional material to slow down the binding of concrete.
25. Sand Blasting
Machine clean the surface of the concrete before repair or reseal.
Concrete mix grouping that separates coarse and fine aggregates.
Reinforcement is used in structural components of steel rods, steel wire, or steel wire mesh to resist shear stress and torsion.
Concrete consistency or consistency tester.
Speedy is a gray cement test to determine the cement bonding ability.
Reinforcement is a plain steel rod or pipe to withstand the tensile force of a structural component, not including prestressed tendons but if specifically included. Reinforcement is divided into plain reinforcement, steel bars with a flat outer surface, and deformed reinforcement, steel bars whose outer surface is carved or finned.
These terms can be searched in the civil engineering dictionaries of various publishers. With the introduction of terms, hopefully, it can help you understand concrete-related matters better.
The term in concrete is often expressed especially by construction practitioners and even builders in the field, and of course in materials or course papers on civil engineering.
Popular words for terms in concrete can also be found in civil engineering dictionaries at bookstores.
With these terms or terms, hopefully, it can help the reader to know the true meaning, so that when in the field they no longer have to ask the other person.
Understanding concrete in general
To conclude at its simplest, concrete is a mixture of materials primarily portland cement, water, and aggregate, or gravel. The main material mixture is stirred and combined at one time. Chemically called hydration, the main material hardens to produce strength in the desired shape until it hardens and petrifies.
Within this process lies the key to concrete’s extraordinary properties: it is plastic and malleable when freshly blended, strong and durable when hardened. These properties explain why one material, concrete, can build skyscrapers, bridges, sidewalks and roads, houses, and dams.
Before getting to the point of discussing terms in concrete, we first discuss in general how concrete can be a commonly used material.
How to make concrete?
The key to achieving strong and durable concrete lies in careful proportioning and mixing of materials. A mixture that does not have enough paste to fill all the voids between the aggregates will be difficult to place and will result in a rough surface and porous concrete. The mixture with excess cement paste will be easy to place and will result in a smooth surface; however, the resulting concrete is not cost-effective and cracks easier.
The term in concrete is portland cement, where portland cement comes alive in the presence of water. The cement and water form a paste that coats every particle of rock and sand – the aggregate. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the cement paste hardens and gains strength.
The quality of the paste determines the character of the concrete. The strength of the paste, in turn, depends on the ratio of water to cement. The water-cement ratio is the weight of mixing water divided by the weight of cement. High-quality concrete is produced by lowering the water-cement ratio as much as possible without compromising the workability of the fresh concrete, allowing it to be precisely placed, consolidated, and cured.
Properly designed mixtures have the workability desired for fresh concrete and the durability and strength required for hardened concrete. Typically, the mixture is about 10 to 15 percent cement, 60 to 75 percent aggregate, and 15 to 20 percent water. Air trained in many concrete mixes can also eat 5 to 8 percent.
Almost any natural water that is drinkable and does not have an obvious taste or smell can be used as a water mix for concrete. Excess impurities in mixing water can not only affect the setting time and strength of the concrete but can also cause flattening, staining, corrosion (for concrete terms we will explain below) in the reinforcement, volume instability, and reduced durability. Concrete mix specifications usually impose limits on chlorides, sulfates, alkalis, and solids in mixing water unless tests can be carried out to determine the effect of impurities on the final concrete.
Although most drinking water is suitable for concrete mixtures, the aggregates are carefully selected. Aggregates comprise 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete. The type and size of aggregate used depends on the thickness and purpose of the final concrete product
Relatively thin sections of buildings require small coarse aggregate, although aggregates up to six inches in diameter have been used in large dams. A continuous gradation of the particle size is desirable for efficient paste use. In addition, the aggregate must be clean and free from anything that can affect the quality of the concrete.
As soon as the aggregate, water and cement are combined, the mixture begins to harden. All portland cement is a hydraulic cement that is installed and hardens by a chemical reaction with water call hydration. During this reaction, a knot is formed on the surface of each cement particle. The nodes grow and expand until they are connected to nodes of other cement particles or are attached to adjacent aggregates.
Once the concrete is evenly blended and workable, it should be placed in shape before the mixture becomes too stiff.
During placement, the concrete is consolidated to compact it into shape and to remove potential flaws, such as honeycombs and air pockets.
For slabs, the concrete is left standing until the surface moisture film disappears, than wooden or metal hand float is used to smooth the concrete. Floating produces a relatively flat, but slightly rough texture, which has good slip resistance and is often used as a finishing finish for exterior slabs. If a smooth, hard, and dense surface is required, flotation is followed by steel troweling.
Curing begins once the exposed concrete surface has hardened enough to withstand the marring. Curing (the term concrete will become interesting if we discuss it) ensures continued hydration of the cement so that the concrete continues to gain strength. Concrete surfaces are cured by sprinkling water mist, or by using a moisture-retaining cloth such as burlap or cotton mats. Other curing methods prevent water evaporation by sealing the surface with plastic or special sprays called curing compounds.
A special technique is used to cure concrete during very cold or hot weather to protect the concrete. The longer the concrete is kept moist, the stronger and more durable it will be. The degree of hardening depends on the composition and fineness of the cement, the proportion of the mixture, and the humidity and temperature conditions. Concrete keeps getting stronger with age. Most hydration and strength strengthening occurs within the first month of the concrete’s life cycle, but hydration continues at a slower rate over the years.
How many types of aggregates are there?
In the need for concrete production, the type of aggregate consists of three parts, namely:
1. Light aggregate is an aggregate that is dry and loose and weighs 1100 kg / m3 or less.
2. Fine aggregate is natural sand as a result of natural disintegration assistance or sand produced by the stone crusher industry and has the largest grain size of 5.0 mm.
3. Coarse aggregate is gravel as a result of natural disintegration from relief or in the form of crushed stone obtained from the stone crusher industry and has a grain size of between 5-40 mm.