Looking for how to build house foundation step by step? Then here we will discuss foundation construction steps in detail.
The foundations of a construction can generally be the most important element to prevent hazards in a construction, in many occasions even the most experienced builders fail to carry them out, for this reason we have created this step-by-step guide for the realization of the foundations.
What does the foundation do?
The construction of the foundations is a very important aspect when the construction of the houses begins, these are in charge of distributing in the best way the weight of the constructions on the ground and prevents the subsoil from spreading which to in turn, it avoids differential settlements that mainly affect housing structures.
It is very important that in the initial stage of the construction of the foundations you take the time necessary to verify that the measurements of your project are correct and in case they are not highlighted in the plans, do so. Keep in mind that everyone involved in your construction works with a copy equal to one of your plans, this can surely avoid errors in construction and will save you costs during and after construction.
What foundation should I use?
If you do not know what type of foundation to use for your project, we can advise you, keep in mind that we have the experience and trained personnel to carry out soil studies that will indicate the type of soil on your land and which foundation you should use.
Once you start your project or take on a part of it or if you want to have an overview of what the contractor you selected for your project is going to do, you can use this article as a step-by-step guide on the design of the foundations for your building. .
What do you need to build your foundation?
To carry out the foundations of your project you need several aspects that we will mention below, just keep in mind that they may vary depending on the soil study and the design that was established for your foundation .
Usually you will need:
- Rods (the measure depends on the soil study and the design of the foundation)
- Compressible material for lining the trenches.
- A sliding polyethylene membrane.
- Rods with a cut of 50 cm or more to mark the ground.
- Personal protection equipment.
- Drilling equipment, taking into account the type of foundation for your project.
- Analysis of the possible risks that your project presents.
- Pre-use inspections of the equipment you are going to use.
- Verify that the personnel are trained to carry out this task.
- Establish work times, keep in mind that in certain places it is only allowed to work during office hours.
- Establish and mark work places.
- If necessary, a funnel and pipe to pour the concrete.
These are some of the main aspects that you should keep in mind when carrying out your project, but keep in mind that not all are the same and as you may need less, the list may be longer, we advise you to do a prior analysis so that they do not make you missing during execution.
Steps to build a house foundation
For the construction of the foundations of your project it is important that you take into account both the advice that we gave you previously and the ones that we are going to tell you below, this in order that your foundations have a good construction process and do not present problems in the structure after its construction is completed.
Start building your foundation using a benchmark
It is important that you mark the reference points and that they are level, if it is a new construction the markings must be considered in the plans as a fixed point that will be taken into account throughout the execution of the foundations.
The reference point is something very important because all the measurements that are made must have the same height that has been marked with this point, this means that if there is an error it could generate problems later, in particular if there are restrictions of height for the building.
What are benchmarks?
The reference point is a point that is taken as a reference, as its name implies, to carry out more measurements in a project. Reference points can be set at the finished floor level, in an existing construction, or by a reference point.
Calculate the amount of material to remove
After marking the reference point, you must calculate what will be the amount of material that you will extract from the project in order to finish again at the floor level ending at the moment that the layers of the floor materials such as concrete, insulation and the hearth have been removed. Investing a good amount of time to level the ground is the key to success so that excavators can reach the deepest excavation sites.
Use rope lines to mark your foundation
Start by marking the walls, install wooden obstacles at the end of each wall, place them out of the way where the excavator will operate. The wooden obstacles are responsible for carrying the rope lines that refer to the faces of the walls that your building will have. In places with limited space, we advise you to use corner dowels and locate the wooden obstacles once the concrete has set.
Mark the trenches for the foundation of your project
Begin by aligning the foundation with the reference point as a reference. When you need to make extensions, do not assume that the existing building is square, it is best that you choose the side that you are going to square, establish a line and then make sure to square that line.
The easiest way to do these extensions is using the Pythagorean theorem, this means that if you measure the length of your first wall and then secure a tape measure at each end, and calculate the length of the hypotenuse you can use both tapes to get an exact third point to that of your first line. Although today there are laser levels that are responsible for balancing these tasks for you.
Mark all the corners
After you have two lines set at 90 °, the rest of the measurements can be taken with this point as a reference, with all corners and joints marked. Many excavators will appreciate you marking the center of the excavation, but others will prefer that you mark both sides of the trenches. Make sure to check the width of your walls and allow a measurement of 150mm on both sides, then use a string line as a reference to mark the trenches with paint.
It begins with the excavation of the foundation trenches
At this point everything is ready for you to start digging. It is important that you establish the level of depth you should dig and check it frequently. Keep in mind what they advised you at the time of conducting the soil study or it depends on the control inspector who will be in charge of indicating how deep they should go.
Indicate how far you must pour the concrete
After verifying that everything is in accordance with the plans and you carry out the necessary inspections, your foundation is ready to be filled with concrete, it is important that you place depth pegs that are in charge of showing how far they should be filled or otherwise On the side you can also mark the sides of the trench with paint this can also serve as marking, the more accurate you are with the calculations of your foundation your calculations the next step the next step will be much cheaper and easier.
Before filling the trench of your foundation with concrete it is important that you also make sure to install the conduits for any pipes or cables that need to cross the trench just below the concrete, keep in mind that if you do not do it you may be wasting execution time of your project and expenses can be increased.
Tips for pouring concrete
If the site where you are carrying out your project is characterized by having difficult access, we recommend that you consider using a concrete pump, this option can save you more time and can be more profitable than using another method.
If your site is difficult to access, a concrete pump may be worth considering. This can be more profitable than a few bodies with wheelbarrows.
Aspects to keep in mind
Before starting with the excavation of your foundations you must plan where you are going to leave the material that will come out, if you are going to leave it at the site of your construction it is important that you analyze which is going to be the most strategic place, and that it does not interfere with daily tasks, to deposit it and at the same time have the most efficient machines for this work.
In case of removing the material of your construction
In the event that you consider removing the material to be extracted from your construction site, it is important that you take into account how many cargo trucks you need, the distance they must travel in order to guarantee continuity in the excavation process.
Tips for coordinating concrete
Another aspect of great importance is deciding if the concrete will be poured directly or if it will have another pouring process, in the case of opting for a concrete pump, it is always a good idea to anticipate three loads, in this case it is important that you coordinate it with your concrete supplier so that their response time guarantees a continuous pour.
If you program concrete mixer trucks
In the event that you schedule concrete mixer trucks and pour the concrete directly from the truck into the trench, it is important that you make sure the ground is firm and stable so it can be parked and does not damage the work that has been done. Mixer trucks have extension ramps, but these can only reach about 4 meters, in case the truck cannot unload the concrete at several strategic points, we recommend that you use a concrete pump.
Advice to avoid concrete contamination
In many cases the concrete mix can be moved around the trenches with rakes, but when the sides of the trenches are unstable, collapses and consequently unwanted contamination of the concrete can be evidenced. It is important that before pouring the concrete, the bottom of the trench is cleaned in order to remove any loose material until a horizontal surface is reached and the cleaning concrete is placed to level the bottom of the excavation, then it is important to place the lateral formwork, to check the slopes and dimensions.
Also Read: Classification of Stone Masonry Work
These are some of the most important tips that we recommend when making the foundations of your project, you just have to keep them in mind so that you do not have any problems before, during and after its construction.