Here we will discuss different types of roofs with pictures so that you can easily get an idea of a roof you need and you are planning to make.
The roof is a part of the building that is located at the top of the building, protecting the building against the effects of snow, rain, hail and wind from undesirable natural events. Choosing a roof type and roof model for any type of structure from the simplest to the most complex is an important design step.
Roofs designed according to usage requirements are classified in different ways according to various features.
Let’s examine the roof types listed above in a comprehensive way with their examples. These types of roofs can also be evaluated as roof models that will give ideas for designs .
Roofs According to Their Slopes
Roofs are differentiated as per their slopes. Following are the types of the same:
Linear Curved Roofs
Linear pitched roofs are roofs that do not have any curvature on their surfaces. These roofs, which are one of the widest and most used roof types, are similar to floor constructions in terms of carrier and application systems.
Low Slope (Terrace) Roofs
Flat-pitched terrace roofs are roof types with a slope not exceeding 5%. It is generally built in areas where roofing is not needed (with mild climate). Terrace roofs provide ease of application to cover long horizontal surface areas. However, it is also used to cover structures with smaller volumes. Flat roofs have simpler surface configurations compared to sloping and curved surface roof systems. Flat roofs are preferred as creative and suitable roof models due to their flexible usage advantages .
Single Slope (Porch) Roofs
Single-pitched roofs consist of planes resting on walls in a linear geometry. In inclined roof systems where the roof slope is at least 6%, rainwater can be drained more easily from flat roofs to the eaves gutters and removed from the building.
It is used more frequently in adjacent structures than in detached structures. They are preferred as the roofs of auxiliary spaces such as outbuildings, winter gardens and pergolas rather than buildings .
Double Sloped (Cradle) Roofs
Double-slope (gable) roofs are types of roofs formed by joining two sloping surfaces to the ridge and closing the gaps on the fronts with gable walls.
It is generally seen in detached single-storey or two-storey buildings. These roof types can be built according to any slope. Gable roofs slope towards the two sides of a central ridge, forming a gable wall at both ends.
Multi-Slope (Hipped) Roofs
Hipped roofs are also called multi-surface roofs. They are roofs with 3 or more curved surfaces built on areas consisting of 3 or more sides. If they have 4 surfaces, they are called simple hipped roofs. If there are more than 4 surfaces, these roof models are called ink and combined hipped roofs.
The roof is broken at angles of 450 from the corners and the broken corners are joined to the apex of the ridge. Ridge and eave are positioned parallel to each other. Although the slopes of all surfaces are preferred to be the same in these roofs, there are also alternative roofs.
Curvilinear Curved Roofs
Curvilinear sloping roofs are roofs with sloping surfaces in one or two different axes. Curved surfaces can be of the same geometric shape or have different slopes. Vaulted, dome roofs are the most well-known roofs of this type. The most important factor in choosing curvilinear roof types is that the curvature changing from the ridge to the canopy is more suitable for the use of the under-roof section.
The carrier system of curvilinear roof surfaces can be formed with combined or specially produced drawn steel beams, glued-layered wooden beams or trusses suitable for the cross-section of the space or the roof form.
Vaulted roofs are the roof system formed by repeating an arch with a semi-cylindrical ceiling formed as a concave from the base . These roof systems, which allow gaps to be easily passed through with segmented structural elements, are applied in different types. At the same time, polycarbonate built on vault systems. Glass etc. It allows us to benefit from natural light with transparent materials.
It is a roof cover that has a circle, square or similar geometric base and covers the base in the form of a hemispherical completely in one piece. It is one of the roof types that are generally built to gather the community under a single roof cover in religious buildings .
Roofs According to Their Carriage
Roofs can be examined in 2 main sections according to their load bearing.
Linear Carrier Roofs
Linear bearing roof types are roofs that are formed by sloping surfaces formed by the carrier elements in the same or different directions in linear or multi-directional directions. The difference of these roofs, which are identical in terms of structural bearing, is only that they have slopes in different directions. Generally, it is created by the designer’s decision at the design stage or according to the suitability (adjacent / disjoint order) in the area where the building will be built. Linear carriers are seen in two ways.
- One Way Linear Carrier Roofs
- Versatile Linear Carrier Roofs
Shallow Supporting Roofs
These are the roofs of the carrier systems consisting of flat or inclined surfaces. These types of roofs are generally the types of roofs formed by the building lines starting with the outer shell and ending at the roof in the construction of the deconstructive structures. The designed carriers also serve as the main carrier of the building. These are the carrier systems that are aimed to cover wide openings in one piece.
- Plane-shallow bearing roofs
- Curved shallow bearing roofs
- Suspended – Stretch roofs
They can be defined in 3 different ways.
Roofs According to Their Form
Following are the types of Roofs According to Their Form:
Cross-shaped roofs are a barrel type roof model placed on two equal rectangular or square plan bases . It is a design method that is generally applied to emphasize the entrance facade.
Şed (Sawtooth) Roofs
Shed (saw-tooth) roofs consist of multiple gable roofs or single-sided pitched roofs lined up side by side. Industrial buildings, public buildings such as art centers are roof types that resemble the teeth of a saw or folded plate in order to benefit more daylight .
Folded Plate Roofs
Folded plate roofs are surface carrier systems formed by connecting planar materials with less thickness.
They have a carrying capacity of approximately 300 times their own weight. They are systems created to cover flat planned structures or facilities. These roof models are generally preferred on the roofs of complexes that receive heavy visitors such as stadiums or theaters.
Pointed (Bun) Roofs
Pointed (knob) roofs are roof systems that cover hexagonal or octagonal areas with a conical or pyramidal geometry. Tower or bastions are also positioned on the higher parts of the roof system, which is made to emphasize this roof system where lightning rods are used from the upper point of the cone parts.
Mansard roofs are sloping roof surfaces that rise from edge corners. These roof types are designed to use the attic space more efficiently. In mansard roofs, the attic spaces offer a very large and suitable interior volume.
These are the types of roofs where the two sloping surfaces are broken inwards and the stream is hidden in the middle . The main theme of the design is to systematically collect rain and snow water in the inner center, send them to the warehouses and reuse after treatment. Although it is generally seen in industrial buildings, it is also frequently seen in single-storey buildings. At the same time, the sections under the eaves rising from the concave outwards are designed to allow more sunlight to enter the building.
Roofs According to Usage Purpose and Types
Roofs are divided into two groups according to their intended use as walkable and non-walkable roofs.
These are the roofs that are designed properly for the purpose of using the roof surface as a garden, terrace, open or closed car park, and the surface is resistant to movements, impacts and loads. These roofs are used as planted green roofs thanks to the convenience of today’s technology.
They are flat or slightly inclined roof types that are not suitable for walking on the surface of the roof or are not suitable for walking due to the slope, and can only be walked on for maintenance and repair purposes . They are generally residential roofs.
Roofs According to their Structural Features
The structure is divided into two as roofs, seating and suspended roofs according to hand features. The trusses forming the load-bearing construction of the roof are the systems in which the loads coming from the roof are transferred / fitted to the walls, floors or beams with the struts, while the suspended roofs are the systems where the loads from the roof will be transmitted / placed on the walls and floors, where they are transferred to the outer walls.
Built-in roofs are roof systems that do not exceed 4.00 m from rafters to purlins, purlins to braces, from there to pillars, from all of the pillars to the concrete floor slab or walls below. It is the most common practice that the roof loads coming from the rafters to the purlins are pressed on the reinforced concrete slabs by means of many posts. In addition, it is also common to fit horizontal elements such as wood, steel, reinforced concrete beams and vertical elements such as columns and walls. In snap-on roofs where roof loads are transferred to the underlying carrier elements by struts, the pillars, purlins and rafters are connected to each other with braces, forming the triangular roof trusses, which are the carrier construction of the roof.
Wooden Concealed Roofs
The main principle in fixed roofs is the transmission of short or long term, fixed and mobile loads belonging to the roof to intermediate supports. These are roof systems in which the roof loads are transferred to the underlying carrier elements with struts. Movable loads such as wind, rain and snow load acting on the roof and the self-loads of the roof elements are transmitted to the roof cover, roof covering, rafters, purlins and struts, respectively, to the external and intermediate supports. These supports can be a floor beam, column or bearing walls that can carry the transmitted point loads or directly under these loads.
Steel Snap Roofs
These are roof systems built directly on the load-bearing walls, beams or reinforced concrete floors without leaving any gaps in between. Support openings in steel roofs resting on walls or beams should not exceed 4.00 m. The triangular system formed by rafters, purlins, girders, bracing, strut and drop beams on the same plane is called roof truss. In steel snap trusses, the loads on the roof are transferred to the carriers through the posts.
It is a roof model that is applied on the desired free spaces in cases where vertical bearers are not desired in the span that is passed, and the gap between the supports is too large (> 4m) to be solved by seated roofs . Roof loads are transferred by truss (truss) to the side carriers.
Wooden Suspended Roofs
These are roof systems where the span between the supports is more than 4.00-4.50 meters, the gaps that cannot be solved with a sitting roof are passed, there is no wall and floor to which the loads from the roof will be transmitted, the load is transferred to the outer walls with support elements such as lateral and truss. The load-bearing elements of the suspended roof are the roof trusses, as in the wooden built-in roofs. Construction element bollards trying to pull on suspended roofs transfer the load to the outer walls at intervals of 2-3 meters.
Suspended roofs are not suitable for spans over 12.00 meters, trusses etc. for spans larger than this. systems are used.
Steel Suspended Roofs
Roof systems, in which steel, which has high resistance to stress, is used as a material, is used in structures with a large support span. Roof trusses constitute the carrier systems of the roofs, as in the steel snapping roofs.
Steel Top Covers
Roof constructions are formed by placing three-dimensional space truss beams that intersect in different planes at certain intervals.
Space cage systems are three-dimensional cages that are made to cover very wide openings, whose elements are connected to each other and work as a whole in all directions.
If the bars of the carrier trusses, which are stable in two dimensions, are located on a plane and need to be supported by cross connections in the third dimension (if the bars are located on more than one plane), space beams can be mentioned. Grid plans of space trusses can be formed from triangular, hexagonal and the most common of which are squares, in order to operate in two directions. Tetrahedrons, one of the space lattice systems that provide quite wide formal possibilities, can be enlarged with three bars located in different planes. The system, on which roofing material is brought, consists of supports, nodes and rods. The rods connecting the peaks of the space trusses are the upper headers and generally work under pressure, while the bars connecting the lower points are the lower headings and are usually pulling. The diagonals between the upper and lower headers transmit the loads to the nodes by trying to pressure and pull when necessary. The system, which is formed by combining the bars that try to pressure and pull in three different planes at a single point, that is, at the node, is both lighter than other systems and more rigid due to the triangular shapes that make up the system.
Space truss beams, which try to cross wide openings with various roof profiles, resist bending at critical points thanks to rigid triangles. The trusses that make up the space frame system are two-dimensional stable carriers. It can resist torsion, vertical and horizontal forces.
Geodetic domes are a type of space lattice system created by placing only pressure and tension rods on a spherical surface. The dome can be hemispherical or it can be made larger or smaller. The resistance of the bars can be increased by considering them as a curved truss system and arranged in two layers. Thus, larger areas can be covered. When the bars on the transformation line of the domes are pressed, all the vertical and near vertical bars below it try to pull.
Geodesic domes are steel dome systems with bearing elements following three large groups of basic circles that intersect each other at an angle of 60 ° and divide the dome surface into equilateral spherical triangles. Geodesic domes, lattice domes and Schwedler domes have irregular base profiles that are absent and complicate the bearing conditions.
Roofs According to Water Removal
Rain and snow water is removed from the roofs by vertical rain descents. This method is applied in two different types. As flowing in and flowing out. Generally, inflow systems are designed to prevent rain gutters on the foreheads of the roof surfaces. These are the roofs where rainwater is collected in the middle of the roof and lowered from the inside or outer edges of the building. Thus, the system is resolved as a hidden stream.
Out-flow systems are applied as a solution outside of this system. These systems can also be intervened from outside. These roofs can also be designed as free flowing when desired. It is seen that roofs are listed under two subtitles according to the way the water is removed from the roof.
- Outflow Roofs
- Inward Flow Roofs
Before you leave check out these interesting articles:
- What Is Green Architecture? Criteria, Benefits, Principles
- What Is a Bearing Wall? How Thick Is the Bearing Wall?
Thanks for reading.