Classification of Stone Masonry – Materials and Classification

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Stone masonry is a sort of building masonry construction that utilizations stones and mortar. This construction strategy is utilized for building establishments, floors, holding dividers, curves, dividers and segments. The stones utilized for masonry construction are regular rocks. These regular rocks are cut and dressed into legitimate shape so as to utilize it in masonry construction. Stones are one of the most tough and solid structure materials. 

The materials and the kinds of stone masonry construction are quickly clarified. 

Classification of Stone Masonry

Materials Used for Stone Masonry 

The materials utilized for stone masonry are: 

  • Stones 
  • Mortar 

1. Stones 

The stones utilized for masonry construction must be hard, intense and liberated from splits, sand gaps, and holes. The choice of stone for specific work is subject to the accessibility of the stone and the significance of the structure. The normal stones utilized for masonry construction are limestone, sandstone, rock, marble, laterite, and so forth. 

2. Mortar 

The coupling material utilized for masonry construction is the mortar. Concrete or lime with sand and water structure the blend for masonry mortar. The blend framed is uniform in nature. The two fundamental elements influencing the determination of mortar for masonry are: 

  • Quality required 
  • Shade of the stone 
  • The heaps going ahead the structure 

Classification of Stone Masonry 

The two primary classifications of Stone Masonry are: 

  • Rubble Masonry 
  • Ashlar Masonry 

1. Rubble Masonry 

This is the stone masonry type where stones utilized are either uncovered or generally dressed. These masonry constructions don’t have a uniform thickness. The quality of the rubble masonry is reliant on the: 

  • Nature of Mortar Used 
  • Utilization of Long through stones 
  • Legitimate filling of mortar between the stone spaces and joints 

Rubble masonry can be again characterized into 

a. Coursed Rubble Masonry 

b. Uncoursed Rubble Masonry 

c. Dry Rubble Masonry 

d. Polygonal Masonry 

e. Flint Masonry 

a. Coursed Rubble Masonry 

In course rubble masonry construction, the stones in a specific course are in equivalent statues. The stones subsequently utilized have various sizes. In this sort, all the courses don’t have the same tallness. This sort is normally utilized in the construction of open structures, projections, private structures and wharfs of standard scaffolds. 

b. Uncoursed Rubble Masonry 

An uncoursed rubble masonry is the least expensive and most unpleasant type of stone masonry construction. These constructions use stones of fluctuated shape and size. The stones are straightforwardly taken from the quarry called uncovered stone squares. The courses aren’t kept up regularly in this technique for construction. At first bigger stones are laid first. The spaces between them are loaded up with spells or sneaks. This is isolated into two kinds: 

  • Irregular Uncoursed Rubble Masonry 
  • Square Uncoursed Rubble Masonry 

Irregular Uncoursed Rubble Masonry: In this sort, the feeble corners and edges of the stone are evacuated with the assistance of a bricklayer’s sledge. At the quoins and pillars, greater stones are utilized so as to expand the quality of the masonry. 

Square Uncoursed Rubble Masonry: Here, the stones are made generally square shape and utilized in construction. The confronting stones are given a sledge dressed completion. Bigger stones are utilized as quoins. Chips are not utilized as bedding. 

c. Polygonal Rubble Masonry 

Here, the stones for masonry are generally formed into sporadic polygons. The stones are then masterminded so that it maintains a strategic distance from vertical joints in the face work. Break the joints as could be expected under the circumstances. Utilization of stone chips to help the stones. 

d. Flint Rubble Masonry 

In regions where flint is accessible bounty, a flint rubble masonry is utilized. Flints are unpredictably molded knobs of silica. They are amazingly hard yet fragile in nature. The thickness of the flintstones shifts from 8 to 15cm. Their length fluctuates from 15 to 30cm. 

e. Dry Rubble Masonry 

These are rubble masonry construction performed without the utilization of mortar. Little spaces are loaded up with littler stone pieces. It is utilized in pitching the earthen dams and the waterway inclines. 

2. Ashlar Masonry 

Ashlar masonry is built utilizing precisely dressed stones that have uniform and fine joints. The thickness of the joints ranges about 3mm which is orchestrated in different examples. The size of the stone squares must be in extent with the thickness of the dividers. 

The different kinds of ashlar masonry are: 

  • Ashlar Fine Masonry 
  • Ashlar Block in Course 
  • Ashlar Chamfered Masonry 
  • Ashlar Rough Tooled Masonry 
  • Rock or Quarry Faced Masonry 

1. Ashlar Fine Masonry 

In ashlar fine masonry construction, each stone is cut into uniform size and shape, practically rectangular fit as a fiddle. This shape thus furnishes ideal level and vertical joints with the contiguous stones. An ashlar fine masonry construction is exorbitant. 

2. Ashlar Rough Masonry 

This sort has stones whose sides are finely etched – dressed. The substance of the stones is made unpleasant by methods for instruments. Around the edge of the unpleasant dressed face of each stone, a segment of 25mm width is given. 

3. Rock and Quarry Faced 

This masonry type has a 25 mm wide strip made by an etch set around the border of each stone. The rest of the segment of the face is left in a similar structure as it is gotten. 

4. Ashlar Block in Course Masonry 

This sort is a blend of ashlar masonry and rubble masonry. The face work of the masonry stones is either harsh to Toledo or sledge dressed stones. The support of the divider might be done in rubble masonry. 

5. Ashlar Chamfered Masonry 

A strip is given as appeared in the figure beneath. Be that as it may, the sides are chamfered or inclined at a point of 45 degrees by methods for an etch at a profundity of 25mm.

Parameters for Construction

In exterior walls, whether bearing or not, the use of materials with low permeability and absorption must be guaranteed to prevent water from entering the wall. Especially in constructions of facades or walls, where there is presence of water.

In interior walls, the conditions for a good finish are reduced to the size and uniformity of the masonry, which will guarantee stability and savings in the use of mortars.

Types of Masonry Walls

Very diverse are the masonry walls. The most popular ones are explained below:

  • Load-bearing walls: Built both indoors and outdoors, they direct weight from the roof to the base or foundation. They can be made of stones, bricks or concrete blocks. Its thickness is relative to the weight to be supported.
  • Reinforced walls: They resist heavy tensile forces and compressive loads. Remaining intact in the face of strong rains and winds, avoiding cracks and failures caused by the pressure of the earth. The reinforcement is done in horizontal and vertical intervals, which will depend on the structural conditwallsions and the loads on the walls.
  • Hollow walls: The cavity inside the wall prevents agents such as humidity or heat from entering the building. If the water exceeds the outer face of the wall, it runs through the cavity to the ground and drains away from it. Sometimes the cavities of the block are coated with paints or anti-waterproof additives to reinforce the water release action.
  • Composite walls: Made of stones and bricks, or bricks and hollow blocks, they lower costs without compromising the appearance and quality of the work. They are connected using steel ties or through joints in horizontal stiffeners.
  • Post-tensioned walls: They are masonry walls structured to resist seismic forces and high winds. They require a good foundation and the installation of vertical post-tensioning bars that go through the partitions or concrete blocks and are tensioned at the top of the wall.