Talking about construction, of course, cannot be separated from the name of construction failure. For example, recently in Indonesia, we often see construction failures during implementation or construction failures due to the influence of external factors such as nature.
In general, construction failure can be interpreted as a physical failure of a building or infrastructure. However, if it is studied further, construction failure is not only based on the physical condition of a building but can also be seen from the aspect of its functions and benefits to the surrounding environment. For example, we often see types of construction products that physically meet the planning and implementation standards, but the construction is not functioned according to the initial planning of the building and in the end, the existence of the construction actually disturbs the surrounding environment, this can be categorized as a project failure.
So in general, we can conclude that a construction failure is a form of deviation that arises due to non-conformity with specifications, benefits, functions, and agreements in contracts made either by service users, consultants, or construction implementers.
7 Reasons of Construction Project Failure
The factors causing construction failure vary widely. But broadly speaking, there are only 2 things that cause construction failure, namely, the first is internal factors and the second is external factors. Here are 7 things that cause construction project failure, including:
1. Planning Mistakes
Planning and design errors are very important and vital factors that greatly affect the construction design that will be carried out in the field, if in the planning and design aspects the consultant miscalculates or analyzes, the consequences and impacts that can occur in the future will have a very significant effect on physical failure. Building. Planning, in this case, can be in the form of planning and designing the physical design/size and security, budget planning, quality planning, implementation time planning, benefit/benefit planning, function planning, and planning that supports the construction products to be produced.
2. Building Feasibility Study Error
Errors in the feasibility study stage had quite a broad impact on several aspects, not only physical but non-physical as well. In the process of making and analyzing the feasibility study, of course, it is necessary to pay attention to the overall aspects that will be projected in the future both at the construction and post-construction implementation stages which have a direct impact on the surrounding area in terms of utilization, maintenance, social, economy, environment, and regulations. Applicable. So at this stage, if it is not carried out carefully, especially for large-scale projects, it will have a significant impact in the future stages, which is certainly one of the factors causing the failure of a construction.
3. Errors during Execution
Implementation errors are a follow-up to the construction planning process, where the implementation stage also plays an important role in construction failures, which of course is more oriented towards the project executor/contractor. During the implementation stage these factors can include, among others, in terms of wrong implementation methods, quality of materials that do not meet specifications in contracts and planning, use of unskilled/experienced labor, use of ineffective equipment, lack of supervision, and poor project management. . Of course, if these aspects can be considered more, the risk level of construction failure from the implementation aspect can be minimized.
4. Construction Operational Errors
In this case, it is more oriented towards the owner of the construction project in the use and operational stages of the construction product, where if the owner makes a mistake in changing from its original function it can potentially lead to construction failure, for example, a building that was originally intended for a school building was changed function. becoming a warehouse or increasing the number of building levels which from the initial planning was only intended for one floor or building construction which after being realized was not used at all / unemployed, as well as other functional changes that deviate from the function of the original plan also have the potential for building failure both physically and non-physical.
5. Construction Maintenance
Building maintenance also plays an important role in the continuity of life and quality of construction products, of course; in this case, a building maintenance management system is needed. If maintenance is not carried out regularly and periodically, it can also potentially increase the risk of building failure. Building maintenance inspection functions to detect early damage to the physical building/infrastructure so that repair/repair steps can be carried out early to avoid a worse level of damage and overproduction of maintenance costs.
6. Disaster-related Failure
This factor is an unexpected factor and human ability that is difficult to predict with accuracy (Act of God), a disaster factor is a very fatal factor in construction failure. Disasters, in this case, can be in the form of natural disasters or due to internal factors / human negligence such as earthquake / Earth Quake, flood/flood, tsunami, landslide/landslide, typhoon, fire, explosion, amblas, etc. Therefore, to reduce the level of risk due to this factor, many construction product owners transfer the risk to third parties such as insurance.
7. Failure Due to Building Age
The age of the building also plays a role in and affects the failure of building construction where if the age of a building product exceeds the planned age it can potentially cause building failure, this is because the strength level of the building has decreased over its life and fatigue/fatigue that continues during the life of the building them.
Definition of Defects and Failure in Building Construction
Making a building construction certainly requires a large amount of money and time. So that all aspects during the construction process must be considered so that the building can stand firm without experiencing problems. Do not let the final work do not match the initial development planning.
In a sense, building construction is a method of constructing a building concerning the requirements of being strong, functional, pleasing to the eye, durable, and cost-effective.
Sometimes, some buildings that have been completed experience errors in some parts of the structure. The effect is that the condition of the building becomes problematic and even has the potential to collapse if it is not immediately addressed.
Errors in construction like this are caused by inaccurate calculations on technical and non-technical aspects of the building being erected. If it is not properly cared for, it can endanger the condition of the building.
There are 2 levels of error in building construction, namely construction defects and construction failure
In the civilian world, a construction defect is defined as a form of deviation or an imperfect result in a construction work that has not exceeded tolerance limits. In the sense that it does not endanger all parts of the building.
Construction defects in conditions in the environment are usually due to minor errors of workers, therefore they do not endanger the user but cause inconveniences such as leaks or improper building work. Construction defects there is no legal umbrella or legal basis to discuss this matter.
Meanwhile, construction failure is a condition of error or deviation in construction that causes the building to collapse or collapse.
Construction failures and defects that occur in any part of the building are usually caused by the following factors:
The foundation is the most important component in the building structure. The condition for lowering the foundation is generally caused by poor soil bearing capacity and proper handling is not done immediately so that the foundation continues to decline so that if it is left unchecked it can break and the building collapses.
The main cause is the inadequate drainage system under the building so that groundwater continues to erode the part of the soil which is used as the foundation for the foundation so that the soil loses its bearing capacity.
To test the robustness of the foundation, a PDA (Pile Drive Analyzer) and CSL Test can be performed.
The Influence of Weather and Other Conditions Such as:
- The occurrence of erosion and landslides
- Unstable temperature
- There is a collision
Concrete in Building Structures
- The formwork is not very sturdy
- Sambuingan that is not good enough
- Overload on structures
It is highly recommended for ready-made buildings to carry out periodic structural audits to analyze signs of damage to the structure to minimize even greater damage.