Monolithic Dome is a dainty divider strengthened solid shell structure. The construction gives safe asylum to individuals in the zone with tropical storms and quakes. This procedure is a viable option in contrast to customary techniques.
A Monolithic Dome is a design project in a one-piece structure. A bend pivoted about a focal hub to frame a surface, makes a Dome. Monolithic domes are novel and eye-getting, however, examines have demonstrated them to be dramatically energy effective. They utilize half less energy than generally constructed design of comparative size.
Domes are assigned as storm cellars. Three siblings David, Barry, and Randy fabricated and protected the principal monolithic dome in 1975. The development of a monolithic dome with appropriate earth protection will withstand bomb impact all the more viably. Sizes: little 2.5 m huge 80m distance across domes. Building comprises of:
- an external impenetrable structure
- polyurethane froth
- reinforced concrete
- Airform Kits – The air structure unit was gotten from monolithic constructors, Italy. The pack is comprised of a 40ft distance across structure alongside strengthened steel secures. It is requested to look like a half circle.
- Polyurethane Foam–Sprayed on polyurethane froth protection was of the type utilizing a section interaction where Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate was blended in with mixed polyol pitch.
- Reinforcing steel – Steel in the establishment and piece was 5/8 inch and grade 40 rebar. Dome shell 13mm and 9.5mm evaluation 60 rebar was utilized.
- Concrete – Foundation and piece a standard sack solid establishment blend were utilized. The concrete utilized in the dome shell was 9 sack for each cubic yard blend.
Development of Monolithic Dome
A monolithic dome is an adjusted structure commonly made of concrete and inflexible steel bars. It comprises an external water/airproof structure, polyurethane froth protection, and strengthened cement. The structure interaction of monolithic domes involved:-
- Lay down the establishment of the dome, normally made of strengthened cement.
- An air structure or texture is swelled over the establishment.
- Polyurethane froth is then added to within the structure.
- Special clasps are fastened to the froth inside, and rebar is introduced. At last, cement is poured over the air structure, rebar, and froth allies and a dome-like shape arises.
Advantages of Monolithic Dome
Advantages of a monolithic dome fall into three general classifications:
- The cost of a dome is less.
- Streamlined development interaction and utilization of just four fixings add to the domes economy.
- Require less support.
- Ability to endure twisters, typhoons, and seismic tremors.
- Provides fire assurance.
- Any structure seems uncovered and ugly when it’s initially assembled.
- But similarly, as improvement can soften and embellish straight lines and corners.
Disadvantages of Monolithic Dome
- Only uncommonly prepared development groups.
- Using the cutting edge procedures.
- Wasted space in restricted corners.
- Lack of creases.
- The different appearance of the domes diminishes the interest for their utilization as private homes and the odd appearance and configuration may cross paths with neighborhood building pledges.
- Depending on the circumstance a huge assortment of varieties accessible from the standard round shape can evade a portion of these issues.
- Building licenses might be hard to acquire if nearby officials are inexperienced with the monolithic dome.
- Resale of a monolithic dome home might be troublesome given its whimsical appearance.
Stages of the construction of a monolithic dome
Modern monolithic domes are built primarily using a method developed in the United States by three brothers: David, Barry, and Randy South.
- The first dome was built at Shelley in Idaho in April 1976. The construction of monolithic domes using this method is based on several stages, performed in a strictly defined order. The first stage is to prepare the site for construction. For this purpose, a ring-shaped concrete base is made, reinforced with a steel reinforcing bar. The bars arranged outside the foundation serve to connect the structure with the additional reinforcement of the structure.
- This creates a monolith with high structural strength. The second stage of the construction of the monolithic dome is the fixing of the pneumatic air to form the ring, followed by air being pumped into the correct shape. In the next step, polyurethanes come into play. Inside the dome, a layer of foam of polyurethane which, after curing, acts as insulation of the whole structure and provides additional reinforcement. At this stage, you can use, among others, prefabricated polyurethane systems available in the PCC Group offer, which allows the production of high-quality insulating coatings.
- An example of stories is the Ekoprodur and Crossin ® series. Insulating polyurethane systems ensure excellent thermal and acoustic insulation thanks to the semi-rigid and rigid foam. These types of insulation have a wide range of applications. They were limited to foundations, floors, internal and external walls, ceilings, and attics. Thanks to the use of Crossin® products, it is possible to achieve excellent coefficients of thermal conductivity. In addition to prefabricated polyurethane systems, the PCC Group’s product portfolio also includes semi-finished products, such as Rokopol polyether polyols, flame retardants (Roflam series), as well as compatibilizers and emulsifiers that are used to produce high-quality OCF. mounting foams.
All of these chemicals are used in modern construction. The fourth stage of monolithic dome construction is the assembly of reinforcing steel bars on the polyurethane foam previously applied using a specially designed rim system. The small domes small diameter bars with wide spaces. For larger constructions, it is necessary to use thicker bars located at smaller distances. The last stage of construction of monolithic domes consists of spraying concrete over the reinforcement made in the previous stage.
This layer generally does not exceed 8 cm thick and completely covers the steel rods, creating a thin-walled monolithic skeleton. After drying, the concrete creates an extremely rigid and durable construction. To improve the properties of concrete, special modifying admixtures are often used, such as products from the Rolfed series (M, H, P, and T). Concrete admixtures of this type are used as very effective concrete adhesion retarders that slow down the overall concrete mix. Furthermore, thanks to their chemical structure and low chloride content, rofluids do not cause corrosion of steel reinforcement.
Construction technology and features of dome houses
The name of the spherical house reflects the peculiarity of this type of residential construction – the dwelling is not rectangular but built in a hemispherical shape. More precisely – in the shape of a polyhedron, seemingly approaching a sphere.
Such a structure can better withstand wind and snow loads and has a more useful area compared to a rectangular building with the same building area. A rectangular or square room in such a house usually does not do. At least one side, but it turns out uneven. This, of course, complicates the layout and decoration of the room, furniture selection, and placement. Often, the state of a domed house should be sorted by its own drawings and their own dimensions and drawings.
Dome houses, as a rule, are built using frame technology, so construction is easy. The frame is made of timber lumber or metal pipes, then sheathed with sheet building material: OSB or plywood.
Insulation is laid between the racks of the frame. Typically, choose polystyrene foam or mineral wool for this. But foam glass, jute, dried algae, etc. You can use environmental materials such as. That is, in addition to the construction of an unusual shape, no other changes are made in the construction: all materials are selected in the same way as for the construction of a conventional frame house.
Spherical houses are built as monolithic reinforced concrete. However, this technology is used less frequently, especially in regions where timber is cheaper. It also takes into account the need for thermal insulation of the concrete dome, so the popularity of this option becomes clear.
There are two technologies in the frame structure of domes: geodesic and stratodesic dome. Each of them has its own characteristics that affect the choice.
The geodesic dome is divided into triangles from which the polyhedron of the whole house is formed. The peculiarity of this technology lies in the fact that many beams converge at one point. The connectors are used for their secure fixation – special devices made of durable steel that reliably fix the supporting structural elements.
When building a house there are quite several connectors, so their presence significantly increases the cost of construction. Attempts to replace industrial connectors with self-made parts, or to do without them, can fail as the entire structure is likely to collapse. Therefore, posting on this site is unacceptable.
When using wooden beams, a non-vector mounting technique is possible. However, such work requires precise application and high carpentry skills.
The advantages of the frames include the stability of the structure – the dome does not collapse when 35% of its constituent elements are destroyed. This has been confirmed in areas with a seismically active zone and strong hurricanes. This stability allows doors and windows to be made anywhere in the home and almost any size. Just keep in mind that the windows will be triangular.
The spherical houses of the stratodesic structure are often assembled from separate trapezoid sections such as rectangles or squares. The construction of such parts allows doors and windows of a standard construction at home.
However, there is a minus: the extraction of structural elements is allowed only after calculating and strengthening adjacent structures. Therefore, the transfer of a window or door, changing its dimensions is possible only after an incorrect calculation in the bearing load of this section or the dome as a whole.
This technology has its own assembly feature. For example, the frame must be sheathed when installing shelves. That is, the assembly of the second row of racks can be started only after the first is sheathed, the third row, the second row of sheet material, etc. Occurs after sewing with. This is necessary because the carcass without the liner has a good bearing capacity for vertical loads and has little resistance to buckling loads. After covering the faces the queue becomes very robust and reliable.
The vertical parts of the frame are fixed with the help of specially shaped locks. Horizontal lintels are fixed with plates and bolts, under which a metal lining is placed.
When cutting sheet material for the construction of a stratodesic design, it should be borne in mind that more corrections are left than in geodesic dome construction. However, these costs are compensated by the standard construction of windows and doors and being cheaper than triangular shapes.