Made of natural ceramic brick, the advantages and disadvantages of which we will consider today, have long been a popular material for building walls. Today, he still does not give up his position – the consumer is worth his environmental friendliness and reliability. Brick buildings are strong, warm and can last more than a hundred years – they check the weather.
Introduction to the material
Before we consider all the advantages and disadvantages of ceramic bricks, it is necessary to understand what the material is and what its properties are. The basis of ceramic bricks is clay mass. The smaller and homogeneous its fraction, the higher the quality of the product. The best clay is obtained with an excavator with one spoon, which is able to pull it out of one layer, without mixing with another. This requires special careers, which have already become a rarity, so rotary excavators are often used. Then the layers of clay are mixed, and good ceramics become heavier.
In this case, a good result is obtained by proper baking. The formed mass is placed in an oven with a temperature above 900 degrees. At the same time, the low-melting clay ingredients hold together those that melt longer. The ratio of these components can be different – it affects the structure of the product. When making them, it is important to respect all norms, both during production and drying.
Varieties, sizes and brands of ceramic bricks
There is still unfrozen brick (otherwise, adobe), which dries simply in the air. But practically it is not done now, so let’s talk about burnt products. All their parameters must be in accordance with GOST 530-2007 and GOST 7484-78.
Ceramic brick by purpose
An ordinary (or building) brick spreads the walls outside and inside the house. This type of brick can be solid or have gaps.
The face (on the contrary, facing) of the brick is subject to greater demands on the outer edge. It should look good and be of high quality, able to withstand rain, sun, cold. The surface of these products can be smooth or wavy. Dyeing is also used. This brick is used for any type of exterior work, including restoration and cladding.
Special types of bricks are used in special conditions. For example, fireclay brick is needed for fireplaces and stoves. Do this by adding a special clay – fireclay. It was burned until it lost its plasticity, and then the soil.
What does the ceramic structure of a brick look like?
The structure of ceramic bricks can be solid and hollow.
A solid brick is called a solid piece without holes. Its weight is from 3 to 4 kg, and its thermal conductivity is from 0.45 to 0.8 V / m² · ° C. For construction (especially low rise) it is used less and less, but there are times when it is impossible to do without a monolithic brick. For example, when installing a stove or fireplace, as well as a basement, basement walls or dock. It is also needed for the production of strong internal partitions and load-bearing walls.
A hollow brick is a product that is drilled with holes (round or square). They are often made. Weigh one brick from 2 to 2.5 kilograms, its thermal conductivity is lower (from 0.3 to 0.55 V / m² · ° C). Internal gaps can be from 15 to 55%. This material is suitable for making external walls up to three floors, internal light partitions.
Dimensions of ceramic bricks
The product can be single, one and a half or double. And in the last two cases, the brick is required to have gaps. The standard length (by the way, a spoon) is 25 centimeters, and the width (called a poke) is 12 cm. This is convenient for laying, because two widths plus a joint of mortar make a length.
Only the height is different:
- Brick 1 NF (single) – 6.5 cm;
- Brick 1.4 NF (one and a half) – 8.8 cm;
- Brick 2.1 NF (double) – 14 cm;
Bricks that have received the 0.7 NF mark (otherwise, “Euro”) are used less frequently. Their height is standard 6.5 cm, but the width is somewhat reduced to 8.5 cm.
However, there are modular individual products (1.3 NF), which also have a standard height of 6.5 cm, and the remaining dimensions are solid (length – 28.8 cm, width – 13.8 cm).
What are the products of ceramic brick brands
The brick is marked with the letter “M” and numbers from 50 to 300. They characterize the maximum allowable pressure in conditions when the product is affected by three forces at once. This is stretching, squeezing and bending. This pressure is measured in kilograms per square centimeter. The more, the stronger the brick.
M 50 products are only suitable for fences and small partitions. The walls (all except the brackets) can be marked M75 and M100. If you want to fold the arch or wall, then you need to buy products brand not lower than M125. Bases with foundations are laid from bricks M175, M150 and more durable.
Advantages of ceramic bricks
Variety of colors
In addition to the traditional red, you can call peach, chocolate, beige, yellow and all kinds of eyeshadows. Especially rich in colors facing bricks – because it is often tinted.
Variety of shapes and sizes
As mentioned, apart from the single, there is a double, one and a half bricks, as well as additional variations.
Couplings do not cause complications
Laying ceramic bricks is not particularly difficult – the main thing is to acquire initial skills.
Long service life
Good strength indicators make building bricks very durable.
Environmentally friendly material
Clay is an ecological material, so the bricks from it are safe for people and the environment.
Good sound insulation
Not bad indicators of thermal conductivity
Ceramic bricks retain heat well (the latter quality is especially characteristic of hollow products).
The price of ceramic bricks is low (for example, compared to clinker).
Because of the ceramic bricks
Products with incorrect geometry were found
Sometimes the geometry of the product leaves a lot to be desired, which makes masonry difficult (this is on the conscience of the manufacturer).
Can break down quickly due to poor quality raw material
When the raw materials are poorly processed, limestone, which is always present in the clay, remains in the brick mass. Then the “dolls” flew into the brick. In these places, the product absorbs moisture and collapses.
Bricks can collapse
Ceramics can be emptied due to the wrong choice of solution or product brand (insufficient strength).
Simply damaged during transport
When transporting to the construction site, the bricks can be damaged – the edges are disassembled – it is necessary to discard some of the materials. This happens more often with cheap varieties, which move only with themselves.
High water absorption
Water absorption by ceramics (especially porous products) is quite high – up to 10 percent. As a result, the number of freeze and thaw cycles is reduced.
Occurrence of high levels
Ugly whitish stains can appear on the brick wall over time – they are high. There is such an accident due to chemical corrosion – when the house is close to a chemical plant, for example. Or in the composition of the brick, “chemistry” is added.
One of the reasons for the appearance of high temperatures is the addition of chemical components to the raw materials for the production of ceramic products. At the same time, it is difficult to talk about the environment.
As you can see, some of the disadvantages of this material are present only in the products of unscrupulous manufacturers. When raw materials, for example, are substandard. Or technology is not respected. So choose your ceramic brick carefully and carefully, buy it from reliable suppliers and manufacturers.